Scenic address: Longzhouping Town, Changyang County, Yichang, Hubei Service Hotline:86 717-5335806

  Folk Customs  

Changyang Tujia Autonomous County has a long history and a cultural heritage.
Known as the hometown of Chinese folk art.


Interpretation of Linjun Earth Boat

Ba culture
2009/06/22 15:44
Page view
The significance of the problem of the material of the old ship
In recent years, with the major discovery of the Qingjiang incense burner stone archaeology, the early Ba culture of “the central area in the middle and lower reaches of the Qingjiang River in western Hubei and its vicinity in the Yangtze River Three Gorges” [1] finally revealed its source. The early Pakistani culture was more than four thousand years old. In the literatures such as Oracle, Shan Hai Jing, Shi Ben, Hou Han Shu and Jin Shu, the records of the Ba people have been confirmed by archaeological materials today. But the legends with mythology in the above-mentioned documents are still left to the suspicion of future generations. For example, the Baqi phase, which was promoted by the Tujia ancestors as the prince, was only regarded as an example of the fact that it was “single float” on the Qingjiang River.
The significance of the problem of the material of the old ship
In recent years, with the major discovery of the Qingjiang incense burner stone archaeology, the early Ba culture of “the central area in the middle and lower reaches of the Qingjiang River in western Hubei and its vicinity in the Yangtze River Three Gorges” [1] finally revealed its source. The early Pakistani culture was more than four thousand years old. In the literatures such as Oracle, Shan Hai Jing, Shi Ben, Hou Han Shu and Jin Shu, the records of the Ba people have been confirmed by archaeological materials today. But the legends with mythology in the above-mentioned documents are still left to the suspicion of future generations. For example, the Baqi phase, which was promoted by the Tujia ancestors as the prince, was only regarded as an example of the fact that it was “single float” on the Qingjiang River.
In fact, the fact that Yan Jun took the old ship was a piece of history, and it was an evidence that the early Ba people were good at shipbuilding and boat use. It is only because of the misunderstanding of future generations that the history of the letter is regarded as a myth. The key point is that the old ships of the monarchs were determined by many people to be ships made of earth, and this happened. Then, whether such old-fashioned ships of the Yijun family are earthy or woody has become a problem that should be identified today. Since the "soil theory" came from the legend, and it spreads widely, even now there are some media in the academic field or credit, it can not be said that it is not worth distinguishing. It is especially important that the “soil theory” is of no benefit to us in understanding the Tujia from the perspective of historical materialism. Although the Tujia people have beautiful legends about the origin and development of their own nation, they are not necessarily satisfied with the fact that they replace the de facto civilization process with legends. In short, the Tujia people did not rely on the ship made by the gods to make a transition to today's society, but to use their own accumulated scientific knowledge and labor skills as their productivity (including their own unique local characteristics). In the struggle against the rich and harsh nature, we used hard work to create material civilization; and in the historical development, we stubbornly resisted and never yielded to stand on the forest of the world nation.
Regarding the ancestors of Tujia, the Ba people, in the "Han Han Nan Nan Xi Yi Biography", Fan Yi has a complete and well-known record. The old-fashioned ship mentioned in the record is the subject of this article. Therefore, the bottom line citation is as follows: “Ba County Nanjun Man, there are five surnames: Pap, Fan, Yu, Xiang, Zheng, all Out of the Wuluozhong to leave the mountain. There are red and black caves in the mountains, the sons of the Pai are born in the red caves, and the sons of the four surnames are all black. There is no monarch, all the ghosts and gods, but the swords are thrown at the caves. Jun. The Pak's sub-sector is a unique one, and everyone sighs. Also, let each take the old-fashioned ship, and the person who can float is considered to be the king. The surname is Shen Shen, and the only thing is to float. Because of the common, it is for the monarch It is the old-fashioned ship from Yishui to Yanyang...Yu Jun is the king of Yicheng, and the four surnames are all...".
It can be seen that in the above-mentioned ethnic origin of the Tujia people, the Ba people's sub-division is the most famous leader of the Tujia ancestors. The reason why the affair became the "Jun Jun" jointly promoted by Ba, Fan, Yi, Xiang, and Zheng Wu, and then the first out of the Wuluozhong to leave the mountain, "will be the disciples", "from Yishui to Yanyang", "and Yi The city is all in the old ship. From this, it can be seen that the importance of such old-fashioned ships is not only the "five surnames" of the "unsuccessful monarch", but also the production of the ancient Ba people who are fishing, hunting, and migrating. And transportation. From the "old-fashioned ships" contained in the historical documents, we can infer that there are already a certain number of such old-fashioned ships in the Suijun era; from the literature, "floating", "multiplying", "to Yanyang" In the meaning of "," and "Yicheng", it can be inferred that such old-fashioned ships have reliable practical functions. This shows that the old-fashioned ship is definitely not a floating body in nature, but only a labor product of the ancient Ba people. When the labor property attribute of the old ship is determined, then its material, whether it is earth or wood, or even metal or composite, can reflect the production skills and civilization of the ancient Ba people accordingly, and clarify this problem. It helps us to understand the level of social productivity of the Ba people in the Sui Jun era. At the same time, we can also comprehensively understand the development track of Chinese culture by comparing the conclusions with the civilizations of other ethnic groups in the same period.
Two pairs of records categorized by the literature of the old ship materials
There are many documents that record the deeds of the monarchs, but they are generally not as good as the materials of the old ships. We take this kind of literature as the first category. Here are some examples of the following:
The history of the Warring States Period, the editor of the Western Han Dynasty Liu Xiang, "The World": "Also take the old ship, the gravure painting", "I take the old ship, from Yishui to Yanyang";
Liu Song Fan Yi, "Han Han Shu": "Also take the old boat", "I take the old ship, from Yishui to Yanyang";
The Northern Wei Dynasty, the Daoyuan Yuan, "Shui Jing Zhu": "Also make each boat a boat", "I take a boat, from the water and Yanyang [2];
Tang Fang Xuanling's "Jin Shu·Li Te Zai Ji": "Yu Jun Fu Fu under the boat and Yicheng";
The Northern Song Dynasty music history "Tai Ping Yu Yu Ji": "take a boat." and many more,
This type of record is shunned by reality, and the old ship is written without saying the material. It is possible that the meaning of self-identification is clear, and there is a small matter. There is no need to explain it. Later generations will never wear it for examination. It may also be difficult to "qualitative analysis" at that time, and carefully leave it to dialectic with future generations; It may be considered that the gods are helping the sky, the earth is floating in the water, and the matter is natural, and it can be unreasonable. In the cited literature, "Shiben" is the first. The "World Book" is a historical archive of the records of the prehistoric historical officials and preserved. After the Qin and Han people sorted into books... some of them were added later [3], and they have already spread. It is rumored that it was in the Tang dynasty in the Song Dynasty. Although there are many kinds of editions in the later generations, the words are different. Even the "Shiben" that Liu Xiang saw in the Han Dynasty may have the same fate as Shangshu. "Shang Shu" has many kinds of differences, such as the "Han Wen" Kong Anguo "Ancient" in the Western Han Dynasty. There was also a fake book that was made up by the Mei Dynasty in the Eastern Jin Dynasty until the Qing Dynasty completely rejected it. Therefore, in the Qing Dynasty, in contrast to the "World Book", only Fan Yi, "Han Han Shu" has the greatest influence and the widest range. After the passage of the later generations, the legend of the monarchy became a final conclusion.
The literature that clarifies the material of the old ship is the second category. The second type of literature currently sees two kinds of "soil theory" and "woody theory". Now listed as follows:
(1) Soil quality theory
Representative records or research articles are:
In the Five Dynasties, Du Guangting’s "Record of the Record": "The earth is used as a ship, and the sculpture is made";
Lin Yongren and Lai Linlin quoted "Han Han Shu Nan Nan Xi Nan Biography · Jun Jun" as: "Also let everyone make the boat made of clay, ..., other surnames are sinking, only the servant is alone. The ship is floating"[4];
Lin Yongren and Lai Linlin co-authored "Bachu Culture" in 1999: "There are experts who have said that Jun Jun is smart and intelligent. His old-fashioned ship is a pottery that has been smelted, similar to a pottery tank, so it is not sinking into water" [5];
Wang Guozhen, editor-in-chief of Sichuan Inland Navigation History in 1989: "The old ship by Yu Jun is a kind of pottery ship" [6];
Deng Heping, 1992, "Jingnan Tujia Research": "The affair... the old-fashioned ship won't sink and win"; "The old ship of Junjun is a painted pottery" [7]. and many more.
Those who hold the "earth quality theory" are the most direct ones. However, Du Guangting, the author of "Record of the Record", is the priest of the Taoist priest, and the singer Tang is enshrined inside. After he entered the predecessor, he was the doctor of Wang Jian [8]. Although his writings were rich, he did not believe in history. Even the "Siku Quanshu Headquarters Summary" directly refers to Du Guangting "their words are absurd and untrustworthy" [9] Lu Xun also believes that Du Guangting "multiple writings, big birthday" [10]. So nowadays it is often arbitrarily fabricated as a fabrication, and the word "invented" is derived from this. In addition, at that time, the title of "Record" was used as the title of the book. It can be seen that Du Guangting himself is also saying that what he said is not enough. Later generations should not blindly follow. At the same time, from the reality of life, the boat that has been qualitatively changed by soil without any treatment can not withstand the soaking and flushing of the current, and how can it be in the Qingjiang River with rapid turbulence and sharp reefs. ", "and Yicheng"? Therefore, from the interpretation of the "soil theory", Mr. Wang Shaozhen and other people put forward that "the old boat that the monarch took on the old ship" was treated with fire. "It is a kind of pottery boat". "It can store food and make tools for water transfer." According to the four words of "Glyphs" in "World Edition", Mr. Deng Heping further inferred that the old ship of Yan Jun was "a painted pottery".
Tao is the earliest handicraft production of mankind. The invention and use of pottery has been around for 10,000 years. However, even today, under modern technological conditions, it is necessary to burn quite a number of "practical pottery vessels that can store food and make water tools", and can also "from Yishui to Yanyang". Easy. What's more, the monarch who was still in the fishing and hunting life more than 4,000 years ago! In fact, in recent years, only one of the Shang and Zhou period pottery kiln discovered in the Qingjiang archaeology has a diameter of only 1.5 meters [11]. A large kiln like this is simply not a practical pottery. So, is there a pottery boat in the Pakistani people? Yes, definitely there is! “In the early Bai people’s ruins of Yidu Honghua Set”, the pottery boat was found. It is only two inches long and has no practical functions. It is only a funeral burial weapon [12]. According to relevant reports, in recent years, in the central areas of the early Palestinian activities, such as the Wushan Daxi on the Yangtze River, the Leijiaping in Badong and the Changyang Incense Burner on the Qingjiang River, etc., have been unearthed equivalent to Jun Jun and its In the period before and after the pottery, such as bowls, plates, pots, cans, pots, hoes, spinning wheels, nets, etc., tens of thousands of pieces [13], the amount is not small, the time span is large, and there are many cultural types, but They are all small and medium-sized pottery. They have never been reported to be practical pottery vessels or fragments that can be considered as practical pottery vessels.
From the point of view of the text, before the publication of Fan Yu's "Han Han Shu", the word "Tao" has existed in ancient times, and there is "Said the text" as evidence. Even before the Liu Xiang series "Shiben", there is already a "Tao" word. For example, "The Book of Rites and Suburbs": "The use of pottery, the nature of the heavens and the earth"; "Mozi Shangxianxia": "Tao Yuhebin": "Mencius under the confession": "The country of the 10,000-room , one person Tao, can you?" "Zhou Li Kao Gong Ji": "Tao people", and so on. With the knowledge of Liu Xiang and Fan Wei, I don’t know the difference between “Tao” and “Tu”. In particular, Fan Yiji’s deeds are complete and well-considered, and there are certain evidences. However, when talking about Jun’s ship, only the old ships are remembered and the pottery boats are not remembered. It can be seen that although Fan Wei and others did not directly "state", they clearly excluded the pottery. Therefore, the "soil theory" can only be said by the gods, but it seems to be far-fetched by the earth.
As for the emergence of "soil theory" and even "tao theory", there are three reasons for this: First, we believe in "taking the soil as a ship" in the book "Record": the second is "carving" The understanding of "painting and painting" is too intuitive; the third is that only the old ship is associated with the meaning of "Shen". In this regard, the author has the following glimpse:
First of all, talk about what is "old-fashioned ship".
In the historical literature, the boat of the Junjun is called the “old-fashioned ship”, just as the Chinese people called the ship “foreign ship” for a long period of time before and after the founding of the People's Republic of China. The reason is the same. Conversely, if we still take it today Jun's old-fashioned ship is interpreted as an earthy ship. Then, can we interpret the ocean ship called the period before and after the founding of the country as a ship made of ocean? Obviously not right. This is because the ocean of a foreign ship does not refer to the ocean of the ocean, but to the foreign country referred to it; the "foreign ship" is a foreign ship. The "soil" of the old ship is not the soil of the earth, but the land of the earth. In ancient times, the examples of the extension of the word "土" were too numerous to enumerate. If the "earth quality theory" is the first thing in the "World Edition" "old-fashioned ship", then it is much earlier than "Shiben". For example, "Zuo Chuan Cheng Gong Nine Years": "Lesson Earth Wind"; "Mandarin Jinyu Nine": "Tumu Sheng"; "Book of Rites, Xia Guan Sima·Tufangshi": "Land Phase House" [14 ]and many more. Later, he was still, "Historical Records, Soyin, and Southwestern Yi Biography": "Tujia's Biography"; "Han Han Shu Biography": "Rustic Extreme Plug": Chen Zai's "To the House to Admit" Poem: "Withdrawal "Wholes of the earth", as well as the local customs, indigenous, local officials, wooden guns, earth cannons, potatoes, soil methods, "wooden buns", native and earthy, and earthy, which we are familiar with today, are similar to the usage of old-fashioned ships. . Therefore, it can be concluded that the "soil" of the "old-fashioned ship" is the native land of the hometown, so the "old-fashioned ship" is not a soil ship, it should be a local indigenous ship. This understanding is exactly the same as the official language's habit of "barbarism".
Second, talk about "Glyphs". The "Glyph of Paintings" here is not the engraving of the surface of the ship made of earth. The eagle, chiseled too. It is the meaning of the system, and it is a further shipbuilding process than the Yellow Emperor’s "life and drums and arcs for the boat". The "text" is a follow-up to "the coffin is a beggar" and the "old-fashioned ship" is perfected. However, the author is more inclined to explain the following, that is, "carving", engraved. "Wen", the mark is also. "Painting", plan also. The meaning of "painting" is the meaning of "painting". The boundary is the plan, so the "draw" and "paint" are connected, and the "painting" of the "glyph" is the meaning of rowing. The words "Glyph of Paintings" are combined in the present words, that is, when the "five surnames" take the old-fashioned ship competition, they will sign in advance or mark somewhere on the other side or on the coast, and then mark this. destination. In the ensuing situation, we already know that in the course of the rowing competition, only the boat of the prince was able to achieve the goal, while the boats of the remaining four surnames all fell.
Finally, talk about "floating" and "sinking." Floating, sinking, refers to the state of the object on the surface of the water and underwater. The word "floating" is intended to be a general term, and it is said that "Yu Jun is a single float", and there is a meaning of a boat ride along the Yishui River or the Yishui River. At that time, the "five surnames" were better than the ship, or by the round, or at the same time, as if they were the dragon boat of the later generations (or the origin of the later dragon boat races). In the game, Jun Jun’s ship was the most robust, and it was the most suitable for the floating body law and fluid mechanics that existed at the time but not inductive, and it was also strong and strong, so it could “single float” in the Qingjiang rapids, and “Yu surname” Learn to sink." "Shen" is a ship that is overturned, such as a wooden boat. The ship is overturned, not necessarily the old ship.
(2) Wood said
“Wooden Theory” was first seen in the article of Mr. Zhang Xiong and Huang Chengxian in the first issue of “Hubei Minority” in 1983. In this article entitled "The Birthplace of the "Junjun" and the Tendency of Migration", the two gentlemen believe that the production level of the Ba people in the Yijun era is roughly equivalent to the advanced stage of the obscured era discussed by Engels. The 'old-fashioned ship' of this period can only be a canoe made by means of fire and stone axe." This is a conclusion that has been thought through and very insightful, and it is not blindly obsessed with literature and authority. However, this unique tree is a reflection of the response, which is regrettable. The author is in favor of the "woody theory". In addition to the honesty that the "soil quality theory" is not enough, I would like to add the following points to the discussion of Mr. Zhang Xiong and Mr. Huang Chengxian:
(1) The technical level of wooden shipbuilding in the Yijun era has improved compared with the Yellow Emperor era.
Now we know that at the end of the Paleolithic Age 10,000 years ago, "humans have invented bows and arrows, wooden containers and utensils, and baskets made of bark or reeds have begun to make canoes." About 5,000 years ago, "there are nests that are made of nests," and then there are "souls". "There is fire in the air, and the wood is clear, so the wood is fired" [16]; Five hundred years ago, "the Yellow Emperor ordered a total of drums and arcs for the boat, and the coffin for the raft" [17], and so on. It can be seen that human understanding of wood has gradually deepened, and it has already been able to manufacture bows, containers, utensils, and homes.
Key words:
General content