— Folk Customs —
Changyang Tujia Autonomous County has a long history and a cultural heritage.
Known as the hometown of Chinese folk art.
Looking for Tujia ancestors
The ancestors of the Tujia people are the Ba people. This is almost a definite conclusion in the academic world. The Ba people are indeed a miracle. She not only has songs and dances, but after 15 years of hard work by Professor Wang Shancai, a researcher at the Hubei Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, scientific archaeological excavations have unearthed more than 10,000 square meters in the center of the site. Stoneware, pottery, bronzes, bones, shellfish, oracle bones and pottery seals of various historical periods. The "mystery of the world's Palestinians" was finally solved - the home is in Changyang. Today, the Ba people have disappeared as a nation, but, back to thousands of years, where did the Ba people come from?
People may still know very little about the source of the Pakistani surname. Inferiority "The vicissitudes of dreams" (published by China Federation of Literary and Art Circles Publishing House) and "Jingmen Xiongfeng" (published by the Central Literature Publishing House) have been initially involved. Here is a brief introduction: Ba, the country name, originated from Ji Xing (from " Spring and Autumn · Bazi"). According to "Road History": Ba, the name of the Zhou Dynasty, Ji Xing. The land is in Chongqing today. The surname Ji is one of the eight surnames of the ancient times, namely “Ji, Jiang, Yi, Yi, Yi, Yi, Yi, Yao”. Regarding the surname of the Yellow Emperor family, it is said that the 25 sons of the Yellow Emperor, the first ancestor of the humanities, were born for the four mothers, not the 12 surnames: Ji, Yi, Yi, Yi, Zeng, Teng, Yi, Yi, Ren, Yi, Yi, Yi, That is, 12 "cell families", scattered to various places. These families have spawned a series of "s". According to research, there were only 64 ancient surnames at that time. In the era of slavery, the Zhou royal family surnamed Ji, by dividing the princes and giving the doctors the pick and the territory, from the Ji surnamed another 198. These "shi" and Zhou Tong are the surname of Ji, and the surname of Ji is derived from the surname of Pakistan.
According to my family's Qing Jiaqing Bingyin (1806) version of the ancient books "Zuo Zhuan" records, Wengong sixteen years (611 BC), Chu hunger, sent troops to attack the southwest and southeastern countries. The northwestern part of the country, the mediocrity (now Zhushan County, Hubei Province), united with the singer (sound group, qun, west of Jixian County, Hubei Province) to take the opportunity to rebel. Chu Xiang Qin, Pakistan for help, Chu, Qin, and Pakistani army in the Linpin (now Hubei County) battle, defeated the Yongjun army, the army was turned down. Then the Chu people, the Qin people, and the Ba people jointly eliminated the Yong State. Qin Deyong North, Chu won the land of mediocrity. For Xie Baguo, Chu will cut the fishtail (now Fengjie County) with Pakistan. Since then, Pakistan has opened the gateway to the western part of the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River - Tuen Mun. It seems that the appearance of the Pakistani name will not be later than 611 BC.
"The vicissitudes of life, the dream of Ouyang Yun, the home of thousands of volumes of ancient books, the four-year version of Qianlong, and the seventy-sixth chapter of the Han Dynasty and the Nanman Passage": Ba County, South County, and five surnames: Pap, Fan, and (shen), Xiangshi, Zheng, are all out of the mountain. There are red and black two-pointed mountains in the mountains. There are no monarchs, and all the ghosts and gods are thrown at the stone caves. The Pakistani sub-sector is a unique one, and all the people sigh, and let each take the earthen boat, about to float, think of the king. Yu surnamed Shen, but the affairs are unique. Because of the common, it is for Jun Jun. It is a boat ride from Yishui to Yanyang. There is a goddess in the salt water, saying that you are a singer: "The vast area here, the fish salt is out, willing to stay together." Jun Jun does not allow, the salt gods come to eat, then become a worm, fly with the insects, cover the sun, Heaven and earth. For more than ten days, the monarchs waited for them, and because of the shooting, the heavens were enlightened. Jun Jun is the king of Yicheng. The four surnames are all ministers. Jun Jun died, the soul of the world is the white tiger. The Ba people used the tiger to drink human blood and swear by others. That is to say, there are five surnames in Ba County and South County: namely, Ba, Fan, Shen, Xiang, Zheng, and the common Pak's subsector is Jun Jun, and the four surnames are ministers. Qin Hui Wang and Bazhong, Ibar is the king, the book is still a woman. The Pakistani people in Pakistan are descendants of Gaoxin, and Gao Xin is a cousin of Gaoyang. Therefore, he has a close relationship with the descendants of Gao Yang of the Chu State. (Qu Yuan's "Chu Ci·Li Sao" begins with an article: "The Emperor Gaoyang's seedlings are ......"
Some people think that the Pap is derived from the surname, and may consider that Pakistan is in the Qinba Mountains, and Qin is more closely linked, and Qin Yuan is from the surname. But they are only distant relatives. In fact, the fact that Pap is derived from the surname of Ji, then what is the name of Ji? The surname Ji is named after the water. According to the "Emperor's Lineage", the Yellow Emperor was born in Shouqiu and grew up in Jishui. In the "Historical Records of the Three Generations of the World", the descendants of the Yellow Emperor were set up as large farmers, giving the name of Ji. Since the Zhou Dynasty was called Baguo in Chongqing, the Ji surname who lived here was divided into the surname of Ba, one of the 198 surnames that Ji Jiyan had. Celebrities of all ages, Ji Jia in the Han Dynasty; Ji Min in the Ming Dynasty.
As mentioned in the previous article, the Pap is derived from the surname of Ji, and the surname of Ji is divided into 198. These surnames of course include the surname of Pakistan. The Palestinian-Israeli country is the surname, that is to say, those who lived in the country of Pakistan were later called the Pakistani surname. This is after the Zhou and Zhou dynasties. It is about 2800 years old. According to the "Survey of Surnames", Pakistan is the name of the ancient Chinese nation and the name of the local government it built, mainly distributed in the eastern and western parts of Hubei. The name of the county of Ba: Gao Ping. Celebrities of all ages: Ba Manzi, more than 2,000 years ago, a rebellion occurred in Pakistan. The Bawang sent general Ba Manzi asked Chu for help and promised to pay for the three cities. After the king of Chu sent troops to rebel, the Baanzi could not bear to cut the city and thanked the king with his own head. (For the deeds, see "Jingmen Xiongfeng" published by the Central Literature Publishing House, page 7.) The south of Jingmen Mountain in Yichang is buried in the tomb of Baanzi's head; after Bagong and Bazi; in the Han Dynasty, there was Basu.
Fan surname, taking the land as the surname, originated from Ji. The branch of Sun Zhongshan, who is the surname of Ji’s surname, was sealed in Fan, and later thought it was. According to "Guang Yun" records, Zhong Shanzhen, Zhou Xuan Wang Shiqing. The ancient Fanyu site is now Picheng, southeast of Jiyuan, Henan. County Hope: Shangdang, Nanyang. Fan Name: In the Spring and Autumn Period, there are Fan Zhuang, Mrs. Fan Ji, Confucius, Fan Chi; Warring States have Qin Fan in the period; Western Han Dynasty has Liu Bangshi Fan Yu; Eastern Han has the red-browed uprising leader Fan Chong; Tang Dynasty has a stabbing history Fan Zongshi.
瞫 (shen) surname, ancient Chinese minority name in southern China. According to the "Han Han Nan Nan Chuan" records, Wu Luozhong has a black hole from the mountain, and four surnames, one of them. Zhongli Mountain is seventy-eight miles northwest of Changyang County, Hubei Province. What needs to be explained here is that according to the author's four-year version of Qianlong's "Han Ding Han Shu Nan Nan Chuan" comment: 瞫 sound review. According to the author's research, the name of Zhuang is not the name of the Tujia family. Looking for Changyang’s surname and insightful person to find out the credible information to go to the side. I analyzed that it may be that the surname is the surname, because they are not only pronounced the same, but also homologous to the surname of Ji, just to save the "sink" that evolved. Such as the Xiangxi Tujia celebrity Shen Congwen is. I do not know if it is not, please advise the party. Yu surnamed county: Jinyang.
The surname is the surname of the ancestors. According to the "Survey of Surnames" records: "The support of the soil is thought to be." Xiang Tu, Shang Tang eleven ancestors, is said to be the inventor of the carriage. Today, in Changyang, it is found that there are fewer surnames, and more surnames may come from the simplification of writing. In fact, the two are far apart, and the surname is based on the ancient name of the country, originating from the surname. "Tongzhi" said: "Yu surname, the country of the vassal. The sons and grandsons are the country." Xiang, the name of the ancient country, in the southwest of Shandong Province, in the early spring and autumn. Looking for the county name: Ba County. Name of the person: After the Qin Dynasty, there are Xiangyun;
Zheng surname, named after the country name, originated from Ji Xing. According to the "Tang Shu·Zai Xiangshi Department Table", Zhou Xuan Wang Feng's mother friend Yu Zheng. And Han Han Zheng, the children and grandchildren moved between Chen and Song, to the country. In recent years, the author has collected 2 volumes of "Yichang Zheng's Branches", including: Zheng's source stream test, Zhongyuan send money, predecessor sectarian style, agreed descendant style; Republic of China 38 years (1949) manuscript Zheng Jiahai, Xiu Xiu, the title of the book according to the cover of the "Zheng's branch". The first ancestor Zheng Fengchun, the Ming Dynasty moved from Jinling Zhili Jiading to Guiding. Whether it is related to Changyang Zhengshi, it is for further study. Zheng surnamed county: Fuyang. Celebrities in the past: Zheng Xuan, a scholar of the Eastern Han Dynasty; Zheng Yi, a historian in the Southern Song Dynasty; Zheng Guangzu, a drama writer in the Yuan Dynasty; Zheng He, who had a voyage to the West in the Ming Dynasty; Zheng Chenggong, who recovered Taiwan in the early Qing Dynasty; and Zheng Sanfa, the former name of the President of the Republic of China, Jiang Zhongzheng; There is a well-known writer Zheng Zhenduo.
Contemporary Ba people - Tujia people are concentrated in the border areas of the five provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan, Chongqing and Guizhou, and are members of the Chinese nation. According to the "Tian Family Tree", the rule of the Tianshi Tusi of Changyang, Wufeng and Hefeng, from the Tang Dynasty Yuan and the first year (AD 806), Tian Xingyu was started by the Tang Xianzong Jiafeng Department of Military Affairs to the thirteenth year of the Qing Dynasty (AD 1735). Reformed to the soil, lasted 930 years. Tian’s originated from the surname of the surname, and Chen Gongzi went to Qi in the Spring and Autumn Period, and Chen’s name was Tian’s. Because Tian Xingyu mastered the military power, the descendants of the later generations were hereditary, and the time was nearly a thousand years. Tian’s nature became a member of the Ba ethnic group. The ancient Ba people and their descendants, Tujia, are arrogant and able to sing and dance. In the long-term historical evolution process, with their unique production and life styles and the spirit of eclecticism, they have created a beautiful life after thousands of years of vomiting. Colorful and unique Ba Tu culture.
Changyang has a long history and rich cultural heritage. However, there are still many gaps in the study of history and culture, relying more on the collection of foreign experts and scholars. Many cultural relics and literature have been lost. For example, I am inferior to the "The vicissitudes of life" Ouyang Yun's "Hui Dou Yan Sheng Jing" and "Ten Wang Baozhen Quan Volume" in the ancient books of the Ouyang Yunsen family, such as the "Taiwan Yansheng Classic" and other Taoist verses written by Yang Yiyuan in the Republic of China during the Republic of China. It was collected in the antique market of Yichang City in the past few years. These things are probably not found in the Wudang Mountain Temple in the famous holy land of Changyang. "Huayang Guozhi" line-bound, "Pak Family Tree", "Fan Family Tree", "Yu Family Tree", "Cai's Genealogy", "Zheng's Genealogy", "Tian's Genealogy" and many other related to Tujia nationality Cultural relics, not collected now, I am afraid it is too late. We must not only study micro-culture, such as the rehearsal of each drama, the creation of each song. Moreover, to study the macro culture, and to look at the historical veins of Changyang culture, Changyang culture has made Changyang even louder in the position of the Three Gorges culture and the Chinese national culture. I think: Changhong literary star Chen Hong has gone, there will be more people like Mr. Chen who are dedicated to Tujia culture, will pay a higher price!
200,000 years ago, there were "Changyang people" who hit the stone in Cangshan; more than 3,000 years ago, there was a "battle phase" throwing a sword boat in Yishui. Today, Changyang Mountain Song, Changyang Nanqu, and Funeral Drum are still famous both at home and abroad. Therefore, Changyang is praised as a hometown of Tujia song and dance. I like to see Changyang, the unique resource of the present, which makes this land particularly enchanting. Inside the city, the waters of the city are full of mountains and rivers, and the peaks of the peaks are rocky; watching the streets outside the city, the Qingjiang River rushes to the rushing, Jinfan Bilang. Looking forward to the future of Changyang, the beautiful future is bright and brilliant. This is exactly the same: the ancient Qingjiang meteorological new, mysterious Ba people are colorful.
Finally, let me once again wish the descendants of the Ba people, the Tujia people, to flourish, and the beautiful and prosperous Changyang land is booming!
Interpretation of Linjun Earth Boat