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An Analysis of the Development and Characteristics of Ba Culture
Pakistan is an ancient nation in the southwestern part of China. It has gradually formed an important regional culture, namely the Ba culture, in the historical evolution of more than a thousand years. Like other regional cultures, Pakistani culture has long-term conflicts and exchanges with its surrounding national cultures in its production, formation and development, reflecting its unique charm and becoming an important part of the ancient culture of the Chinese nation.
The academic community’s concern for Pakistani culture began in the 1930s. With the archaeological progress in the Bayu region since the 1950s, our understanding of the overall appearance of the Pakistani culture is more comprehensive, and the research is more systematic and in-depth. The convening of the first National Ba Culture Academic Symposium marked the beginning of a new phase in the study of Pakistani culture. This article gives a brief account of the origin, development and characteristics of the Pakistani culture.
At present, there are different views on the ethnic origin of the Ba people. In summary, there are two main opinions: one is that the Ba nationality originates from the Hanshui River basin in southern Shaanxi; the other one says that the Ba nationality originates from western Hubei and eastern Sichuan. The Xiajiang River Basin. Second, each said that they have their own opinions. The author believes that it is very important to study the ethnic origin of the Ba people based on ancient books, and the archaeological data should be paid more attention. According to the archaeological reveals of the western Hubei and Bashu regions since the founding of the People's Republic of China, combined with the comprehensive analysis of the literature, the Ba ethnic origins from the Qingjiang and Xiajiang areas in western Hubei and eastern Sichuan are relatively reliable.
After the archaeological investigation of the Pakistani era since the 1950s, the cultural relics of the Paleolithic Age have been found in the Longshan slope of Wushan Temple and Mawangchang in Chongqing (1). Thousands of fossil specimens have been unearthed, and the ancient human teeth of Longgupo The unearthing of fossils has become one of the earliest human fossils discovered in China, which provides evidence for the search for the earliest human activities in Pakistan. In particular, the discovery of Daxi culture has become an important harvest in the Neolithic archaeology of this region. In the western part of Hubei Province, it has investigated and excavated Yidu (Zhicheng) Maoxi Set, Honghua Set, Ancient Back, Zigui Liyu Mountain, Yichang Lujiahe, Baimiao, Zhongwu Fort, Yangjiawan, Qingshuitan, Jiangling Maojiashan, Songzi Guihuashu, Public Security Wangjiagang, Hunan Sanyuan Palace, Dingjiagang and other sites. Its distribution area has expanded from western Hubei and eastern Sichuan to the middle of Hubei and around Dongting Lake. In the unearthed, there are a large number of pottery equivalent to the middle of the Erlitou culture to the late Shang Dynasty, with more oysters, beans, plates, pots, cups, pots, pots, big mouths, pots, pots, pots, tanks and some unknowns. . These pottery are mainly sand-filled pottery, grayish black and brown, and a small amount of thick terracotta, black pottery and orange pottery. There are many gray in clay pottery, black, orange and brown pottery. Multi-rope pattern. In addition to pottery, there are also excavated production tools such as stone axe, stone chisel, stone shovel and the base of circular, square and rectangular houses on the semi-cavity or surface.
The above-mentioned archaeological excavations in western Hubei and eastern Sichuan are called "the early Ba people's remains" by the archaeological community. Mr. Yu Weichao has pointed out in the article "The archaeological speculation of Xianchu and Sanmiao culture" (2). The early Ba people's ruins have been found in many places in Yidu's ancient back, lotus bud, safflower set, Baishui port, etc. Dangyang Jijiahu also appeared in the early Ba people pottery. Similar to the culture of western Hubei, there are also a large number of discoveries in the Wushan-Jialing River basin in the eastern Sichuan region. For example, the pottery unearthed at the Dachangba and Wuxian Jinggou sites in Wushan is also a sand-filled pottery (3). This is obviously different from the early Chu culture artifacts in the western part of Hubei. Therefore, Mr. Yu Weichao said: "On the west side of the Jianghan Plain, although the traces of the middle reaches of the Yellow River are not seen, but along the Yangtze River at the exit of the Three Gorges, a large number of early Ba people sites were suddenly discovered." "It is likely that Daxi to Jijia Lake." This culture was also in decline at this time, and the early Palestinians took the opportunity to develop from the Qingjiang River basin and expand to the Yangtze River coast (4). This is a quintessential statement drawn from archaeological discoveries. This can be seen from the origin of the early Ba ethnic origin.
According to the records of the literature, the activities of the Ba people in the Qingjiang and Xiajiang river basins in western Hubei and eastern Sichuan began in the Xia Dynasty. This is consistent with the archaeological findings of the above regions. There are many myths and legends about the origin of the Ba nationality in the literature. The earliest record is "Shan Hai Jing·Hai Nei Jing", the second is the "Shiben" written by Liu Xiang of the Western Han Dynasty. Some scholars have made more arguments about the facts of "Zhu Shu Ji Nian" and "Shan Hai Jing" on Xia Qishi's "Meng Tu Ru Ba" and "Ji Jun Ba" as recorded in "Shi Ben". Let me repeat. However, for the question of whether there is a "Ba" in the Yin Shang oracle bones and "Ji Zong Zong Ba" in "Huayang Guozhi·Ba Zhi", let me say a few more words. "The post-war Beijing-Tianjin new oracle bone collection" said that there was a "Bafang" in the oracle bone inscription unearthed from the Yin Ruins. Where is this "Pakistan" located? Gu Jiegang's "Atlas of Chinese History" marked "Bafang" in the Golden Gorge section of the Hanshui River Basin, but speculated that the geographical orientation of the "Palestinian" is not very certain. Although many scholars believe that there are "Palestinian" and "Pak" in the oracle bones of the Yin Ruins, the "A Summary of the Yin Ruins", "The Yin Ruins", "Bone Letters", "Oracle Bone Dictionary", etc. The oracle bone scholars believe that the Yinxu oracle bones masterpiece does not say that there is a "ba" in the oracle bones, let alone the "bafang." Yuan Tingdong is close to the "Bao Culture", and he believes that the word "Ba" in Oracle is misinterpreted. In addition, Mr. Meng Shikai and others, in his discussion of oracle bones (5), are also skeptical about the word "ba" in Oracle. Of course, there is no "ba" in Oracle, which does not affect the fact that the Ba people exist in Xia. If the "Bafang" existence of the Hanshui River Basin can be established, it will increase the possibility of early Palestinian activities in the western Hubei and Chuandongxia river basins, because the Hanshui River Basin in southern Shaanxi and Hubei and Sichuan The east is similar. As for the "Ba Zhi" said in the week "Wu Wang is both Yin Yin, with his Zong Ji Feng Yuba", this refers to the Western Zhou Dynasty's new seal of Pakistani Ji ruler. Mr. Shen Changyun said in the article "On the establishment of the country of Pakistan and its indigenous peoples and other related issues" (6): "The early years of the Western Zhou Dynasty were included under the direct rule of the Ji Zhou aristocrats", "Jama The ruler of the country, surnamed Ji, as for the majority of the indigenous people who are ruled by the country, their surnames and ethnic groups, is a matter of course. At that time, the Ba people were not only one of the migration activities in the Hanshui River Basin. In other areas, there were still many activities of the Ba people’s activities. Whether they were all ruled by Zongba, it is not known. But one thing is certain, Zongji’s Bar is not a long-term place to live in the Indigenous Bar in the west of Hubei and the East Sichuan Gorge.
The archaeological findings of the Xia Shang site in western Hubei also indicate that the early Ba people and Chu people coexisted in western Hubei, close to each other, but their cultural features are quite different. The types of artifacts unearthed from the early Ba people's ruins indicate that the early Ba culture that extended from the Qingjiang River basin to the Xiajiang area during this period was developed by the influence of the Erlitou culture of the Central Plains. The earliest ones whose origins can be seen in the literature are those recorded by the scholars, such as Shan Hai Jing, Ba Zhi and Shi Ben. The place is expected to be in the Wuluo Mountain in the Yang County, southwest of Hubei Province. Later, it gradually moved to the Enshi area and the eastern part of Sichuan. After the Yujun era, the activities of the Ba ethnic group expanded widely. The south was centered on the middle and upper reaches of the Qingjiang River, north to Hanzhong in the south of Shaanxi, and east to the upper reaches of the Han River. It is now part of the regions of Hubei, Sichuan, Shaanxi and Guizhou. Here is where the early Ba ethnic groups thrived, and the origin of the Ba culture.
As mentioned above, the ethnic origin of the Ba people is in the Xiajiang River basin in western Hubei and eastern Sichuan. The Shangba people of the Shang Dynasty accepted the feudalism of the Zhou royal family and participated in the closure of the Western Zhou Dynasty. By 316 BC, Pakistan was destroyed by Qin. Since the beginning of Qin Dynasty, the two parts of the Pakistani region have been divided into two parts, and the normal development of the country has ended. As far as the development of the entire Pakistani culture is concerned, the signing of the Ba ethnic group and the destruction of the country can be roughly divided into three major stages of development: the pre-Bali state, the post-state, and the post-war. In its different stages of development, it reflects the conflict, communication and integration of Pakistani culture.
The Ba nationality originated from the Xia and Shang dynasties to the Western Zhou Dynasty, and gradually developed into a strong nationality in a region where many ethnic groups coexist. "Han Han Shu" Volume 86 "Southern Nanfang Xi'an Biography" said:
Ba County South County, there are five surnames: Pap, Fan, Miao (sound), Xiangshi, Zheng. They are all out of the mountain. The mountain has red and black two points, the son of Pap is born in the red hole, and the sons of the four surnames are all black. There is no monarch, all the ghosts and gods, but a total of throwing swords in the stone cave, about the ability to be the king. The Ba's sub-sector is a unique one, and all are happy. Also, let each ride a soil ship, about the ability to float, think of the king. The surname is Shen Shen, and the only thing is to float. Because of the coexistence, it is for Jun Jun. It is a boat ride, from Yishui to Yanyang. There is a goddess in the salt water, saying that you are a singer: "The vast area here, the fish and salt are out, willing to stay together." Jun Jun is not allowed. When the salt god came to eat, it turned into a worm, flew with the insects, masked the sunlight, and the heavens and the earth smashed. For more than ten days, Yu Jun [serving] his own, because of shooting, the heavens are enlightened. Jun Jun is the king of Yicheng, and the four surnames are all ministers. Jun Jun died, the soul of the world is the white tiger. Pap is drinking blood from the tiger, and it is awkward.
Although this material has mythological color, it discusses the long history of the tribal alliance formed by the other four surnames of the Ba people, and the Ba people have gained important expansion. Later, the Ba people went up to the Qing Dynasty and entered Yanyang (now the Enshi area of Hubei), where they established the political and military bases for the development of the Ba people. In turn, the power of the Ba people extended to the east of Sichuan. The Ba people once lived in Fuling in Chuandong, so "Ba Zhi" said that Bazi "the tomb of the first king is in the shackles", that is, today's Fuling. The discovery of the tomb of the Tomb of the Xiaotian Xiba in Fuling can be proved. The Ba people of this era may still be in the stage of evolution from military alliance democracy to class society. During the War of the Shang and Zhou Dynasties, "Zhou Wuwang's sorcerer, the real master of the Bab, is concerned about Shangshu. The Pakistani teacher is brave, the song and dance are swaying and swaying, and the former swearing is ruined, so the world is called the martial arts king, the former song and the dance. Also '. Wu Wang is both Yin Yin, with his ancestral jade sealed in the Pakistani, the prince of the son." (7) Check the "Shangshu·Shepherd Oath", "The dynasty is a vow to the Shangmu Makino, Wang Zuoqi Huang Wangcheng, and the right to the white 旄 麾. 曰: 逖矣, the people of the West. Wang Hao: Hey! My friend Bang Jun , Royal, Situ, Sima, Sikong, Asia Travel, Shishi, Qianfuchang, Baifuchang, and Yong, Yi, Yi, Wei, Lu, Peng, Yi people. "Historical Records, Zhou Jiji" and "Bamboo Book of the Year" are similarly written, all of which are said to have been flawed by Zhou Shi. Many scholars have noticed this problem in their research and listed Pakistan as a "濮". "濮" is recorded in the literature, and it is called "濮" or "百濮". It is active in the western part of Hubei Province and is adjacent to the Palestinians. Later, it also entered the tribal alliance of Pakistan. Zhu Junming said in the "The Differences and Similarities between the Others" (8) that "Ba is a scorpion, and after the development of Pakistan, it will enter the alliance of the Israeli-Palestinian. Participated in the war of demolition, and was officially established in Pakistan, and thus officially established the country of Pakistan. Therefore, this indicates that the Ba culture was officially produced and formed on the basis of a multi-family tribe.
For the Western Zhou Dynasty feudal Pakistan, the literature has been clearly documented, but there are still many scholars who are skeptical. Some scholars based on the "Han Han Nan Nan Yi Yi Chuan" recorded "Jun Yi Yi Cheng", is the card of the Ba nationality. Ancient cities, mostly of a military nature, existed as the original military fortress, which is different from the cities in the future. The ancient tribe also had its activity center, which was the early city. Therefore, having a city is not the main sign of the country. Other scholars believe that Pakistan’s participation in the martial arts division is the existence of the army of the Palestinian state. The ancient tribes are mostly military alliance organizations. The existence of this military democracy is a characteristic of the development of ancient tribes, not strictly. National organization. It is because of the participation of the King of Wu, it is only because of the "Wu Wang is the Yin, the ... Pakistan, the 濮, Chu, Deng, the country of China and Xia, the only thing is the ear." Here, only Ba, Chu, and Deng were listed as "the country of China and Xia" and they did not discuss it. Therefore, after the founding of the country, Pakistan really began to enter the slave-class society, even though Pakistan’s slavery was still in its infancy. Even when it was said that Qin and Bhagwan, Pakistan was not a country with relatively developed slavery.
When Zongji Baguo was first sealed, it was likely to be in the Hanshui River basin in the south of the gorge. "Warring States Policy" has "the armor of Hanzhong, the light boat is out of the Pakistani". Later, due to the attack of Chu, it had to move south to the eastern part of Sichuan and develop along the Yangtze River. Ba was based on the "Pingdu" on the Yangtze River. In the upper part of the city, Jiangzhou (now Chongqing), which is the junction of the two waters of the Three Rivers, is the center of the city. Later, he was constantly threatened by the Chu State, and finally retreated to the middle of the Jialing River Basin. "Ba Zhi" said, "When the Bazi was in Jiangzhou, or the governor of the river, or the rule of the capital, the rule of the middle of the ... ... animal husbandry in the Ju, today East Turtle (now Tongluo Gorge) under the animal is also ". "Water Sutra" Jiangshui also remembers, "Yidong Wangxia, Dongli Pingdu (now Fengdu), the gorge to Fengmin Prefecture, the old folks are also." The area of the country since the Western Zhou Dynasty, "East to Yufu (now Fengjie), west to the road (now Yibin East), north to Hanzhong, Antarctic 黔涪" (9). The phrase "Antarctic 黔涪" refers to Fuling, and the slang is unknown. Its geographical position is in some parts of the present. The Pakistani country is located in the deep mountain gorge in the eastern part of Sichuan. The development is very difficult. The west and the dynasty have fought for many years. The east is out of the river and there is a Chu country, and the north is in Hanshui and competes with the 蜀, Chu and Qin. The so-called "Baby World War", "Bachu phase attack" and other records are sufficient to explain (10). It was not until the Spring and Autumn Period that Pakistan did not get a faster development. Instead, under the repeated attacks of the Chu State, it had to retreat to the middle of the country. Its potential was like the end of a strong bow, and there was no ability to fight. In order to develop, I had to make a good deal with the shackles, and thus caused anger and ruin, which led to the introduction of the Qin dynasty. In 316 BC, the Bab was returned to the end and was destroyed by Qin. As a Pakistani country in eastern Sichuan, in the history of hundreds of years, although it is hard to breathe in the world, it is in this particular geographical environment and historical conditions that Pakistani culture and other cultures have gained long-term conflicts. Communication and development. Therefore, this period is an important development period of the Pakistani culture. It combines some factors of Chu, Yi and Qin culture.
Qin and Ba Shu, and then established the two counties of Ba and Yu in the Sichuan region, which basically ended the independent development process of the Bashu culture. According to "Han Han Shu Nan Nan Xi Yi Biography", in the Qin and Han Dynasties, not only the conflicts between the two counties of Ba and Yu, but also the Ba Shu also often participated in the wars carried out by the central government of Qin and Han, so that the exchanges between Pakistan and the Central Plains culture were frequent and promoted. The integration of the Bayu culture with the Central Plains culture. In the 1970s, in the Hebei Province, Xingtai and other places, the bronze pottery of the Han Dynasty was unearthed in the Han Dynasty, and a large number of bronze wares were unearthed from the tomb of the Han and Zhao kings. This is a reflection of the cultural exchange between the Bashu culture and the Central Plains. This shows that in the Qin and Han Dynasties, not only the final integration of the two regional cultures of Pakistan and Chongqing, but also the formation of the Bashu culture, and the integration of the Bashu culture and the Central Plains culture was gradually realized. Therefore, during the Qin and Western Han dynasties, it was the period of integration and development of the Ba culture and the Central Plains culture.
The survival and development of the Ba people seem to have an indissoluble bond with the rivers and fishing and hunting. It is neither a mountain nor a dam, but a water house or a water house. The Ba ethnic group in the Xia and Shang dynasties developed mainly along the Qingjiang River and the Yangtze River basin. From the Western Zhou Dynasty to the Warring States Period, the Ba People Activity Center, whether in Jiangzhou, Dianjiang or Pingdu, or in the later period, lived along the Yangtze River. In the Qin and Han Dynasties, the living habits of the Ba people remained the same. "Han Han Nan Nan Chuan" said: "There is a swill in the sputum, and its people live in water. The nature is brave, ... the folk songs and dances, (Han) Gaozu Guanzhi: 'This Wu Wang's song is also '. It’s the life of the music, and the so-called Ba Shu dance.” In the western Hubei and eastern Sichuan areas where the Ba people live, it is impossible to carry out agricultural production, and fishing and hunting become the main way for them to obtain means of subsistence. Therefore, water habitat fishing and hunting is a prominent feature of Pakistani culture.
The Ba people lived for a long time along the river, and the main tool for their migration was the boat. The funeral of the ship is one of the characteristics of the burial custom of the Ba people, and it is closely related to its fishing and hunting life. In the early Ba people ruins of the Yidu safflower set, a 7.2-cm-long pottery model and an object called the "bird-head-type handle" were found. The pottery vessel is only a funeral burial weapon. The boat rafts have been found in many archaeological areas in Sichuan. The Chongqing Museum is now showing the unearthed ships. The bird's head type is a long-mouthed bird-shaped bird that reflects the Osprey bird. The osprey is a fish carp, also known as cricket. Guo Wei's "Erya · Fish Release" Note: "Yu also, the Tsui head is like a hook, eating fish." In the article "Bazi Fish Culture" (11), Comrade Shen Shifang classified the maps of bronze vessels, fish patterns, and fish plaques in the unearthed objects of the Ba culture. It is pointed out that in the three excavations of the Daxi culture, the fish bones are piled up, placed on the person, placed at the feet, or placed under the arms, or in the mouth. This situation is special and the relationship between Daxi culture and Pakistani culture should be considered. At least it shows that this type of artifact is significantly different from other cultural types of utensils. The ship was buried in the past and was considered to be the burial system of the Ba people. However, it was published in the archaeological reports of "Archaeology", "Relics", "Sichuan Cultural Relics", etc. This kind of funeral is in Daxie, Mianzhu and Pujiang in western Sichuan. There are also many discoveries in Jixian, Pengxian, Shifangyu, Guanghan, Yingjing and Chengdu. The burial of the squatting vessels is mostly the tombs of the Warring States. This seems to indicate that the burial of the squatting vessels was actually influenced by the Pakistani culture. Because after the middle of the Spring and Autumn Period, the Jing (Ba) people used the Chuandong to replace the Du Duyu, and established the Kaiming's Shu Kingdom in the western Sichuan Plain. (12) This Kaiming is probably the Chuandongba. An important one. Therefore, the culture of the depression after the opening of the Ming Dynasty will inevitably carry some important factors of the Pakistani culture. Among them, the burial of the ship is an example. Before the introduction of "Ba Shi Yong Rui, singing and dancing to Ling Yin people ... Wu Wang cut down, the former song after the dance also" and "Ba Yu dance" is obviously related to the Ba people living in the name of the name of the water, as for the early songs and dances of the Ba people It is not known what the difference between late song and dance is. Many scholars have researched the origins and characteristics of the "Ba-Dance Dance". Here I just want to explain that this "Ba-Dance Dance" is related to the Chuanjiang No. According to comprehensive literature and archaeological analysis, the Ba nationality is a ship-fishing nationality with fishing as its main source of life. Therefore, the Ba culture is summarized as a typical water-fishing and hunting culture, especially in the early Ba culture. This feature is more prominent. This characteristic of Pakistani culture is caused by the geographical environment in which the Ba people live, and is also related to the relatively low level of productivity development at that time. The formation of this characteristic of Pakistani culture plays a decisive role in the influence of its natural geographical environment.
The Pakistani culture during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States period has already had certain agricultural factors. After the settled in the eastern Sichuan region, the Ba people’s geographical environment has changed compared with the western Hubei and the eastern Sichuan, especially in the area near the Chengdu Plain in western Sichuan. influences. "Huayang Guozhi·Zhizhi" once remembered that during the Spring and Autumn Period, the country was "Duo Yu, who taught the people to work in agriculture, and on the 1st, the main lord, ... Pakistan also turned its teaching and agricultural affairs, so far Pakistan, the people When the farmer squats Du Dujun." This shows that the rulers of Pakistan also pay more attention to agricultural production. In the book "On the Bashu Culture", Xu Zhongshu pointed out that the depression in the Spring and Autumn Period is a country dominated by agriculture, while the "Ba" in western Hubei and eastern Sichuan is still a scattered alliance dominated by fishing and hunting. country. Obviously, the Pakistani state at this time is lagging behind in the development of social economy and culture. "In terms of 蜀, it has probably entered the class society in the Yin and Zhou dynasties," and "it seems to be in the early days of slavery when the Qin Dynasty and the Bab," (13), makes sense. This point can be confirmed by the difference in methods between the monks and the rulers of the Qin people. Qin guarded the king of the seal, but against the Palestinians, "the king wants to be", "the king is suspected of his razor, but the stone is the ally, ... the ally: 'Qin guilty to lose a pair of Huanglong, Yi Qin lost a wine 'The Yi people are safe.” Because the Inba people are backward in politics, Qin does not use the primitive methods of exploitation to marry and adopt marriage, and the marriage is "Qin female." "And Qin Hui Wang and Bazhong, with the Pakistani as the barbarians, the world is still Qin, the prince is no more than sin, and sin can be removed" (15). Although the economic and social development of Chuandong and western Sichuan is not balanced, the agricultural production of the Ba people has made great progress after they settled in Chuandong. “The soil is planted with grain, livestock, six animals, silkworm, marijuana, fish salt, copper and iron, lacquer, tea honey, turtle, giant rhino, pheasant, white peony, yellow run fresh powder, all of which are tribute...” 16). The tribute mentioned here should be tribute to the Qin Dynasty, which indirectly reflects the development of agriculture and handicraft industry in Pakistan during the Warring States Period. Regarding the historical facts of agricultural technology progress in Pakistan, Mr. Deng Shaoqin made a special statement in the article "New Exploration of Ba Shi", pointing out that Yangpu Jiang, Yulin powder, Baxiang sake, umbrella salt and other products are the agricultural and handicraft industry of Pakistan. Features. Producing wine is only possible after the rest of agricultural production, and the Ba people can produce "sake wine". Therefore, there is a saying in the Qin people's alliance that "the people of the Qin Dynasty lose a cup of wine," the Ba people's sake seems to be very famous. During the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, the Pakistani state not only changed its social and economic structure, but also made significant progress. "Ba Zhi" has a record of "Bazi Lishi in the North Shore of the Turtle Pavilion", but it has not yet been discovered that the currency of Pakistan has been unearthed. Then, the city set up by the Palestinians is probably a barter exchange, not a complete urban economy. This is inconsistent with the economic development level of the Central Plains in the same time, and it is far from being close to the neighboring Chu. Therefore, we believe that the Ba culture in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period has both agricultural factors, and its compounding is enhanced compared with the characteristics of early culture. Some scholars have also examined the connotation of Pakistani culture from the perspective of archaeology on the pottery and weapons types of Ba, as well as architecture, writing, dialects, folk customs, etc., and do not repeat the discussion here.
Since Qin and Bhagwan to the middle and late Western Han Dynasty, although the development of Pakistani culture has continued for a period of time, it is not a cultural connotation in the original sense, reflecting the characteristics of the integration period between the Ba and the Huaxia. After Ba was destroyed by the Qin Dynasty, part of it flowed into Wuxi, but most of it was merged with the Central China Huaxia. According to "Han Geography", Ba County in the Western Han Dynasty has jurisdiction over Jiangzhou, Linjiang, Yi, Yuzhong, Qiong, Anhan, Yanqu, Yufu, Chonguo, and Fuling eleven counties. "Han·Food and Food" also remembers that when Emperor Wudi began to open the southwestern Yi, the mountain channel was more than a thousand miles away, with the Guangba 蜀, the Bashu 羁焉 羁焉. "Similan is not enough to rent, but it is raised by the people of Nantian." The Western Han regime's policy of enlightening the road to the Bhagwan and relocating the people to the field has undoubtedly greatly promoted the economic development and national integration of the Bayu region and accelerated the rapid evolution of the Ba culture to the Han culture. The book of the "Ben" has no surname. In the Han Dynasty, the Ba people also had surnames. According to Deng Shaoqin's research, Dart, Xiang, Pu, Gong, Xi, Fu, Yi, Yi, Luo, Medicine, Degree, Xi, Capital, Yang, Xian, Guo, Tax, Tong, Yi, Ba, Qing, Wu, Tu The names of Hou, Ba, and other names appeared in the Han Dynasty (18). "Ba Zhi" also records the fact that the Ba people and the Han people jointly resisted the invasion of the Han people by the monks. These all indicate that during the Western Han Dynasty, the Ba culture and the Central Plains culture were integrated. In the Bayu region, the Han culture has occupied a dominant position. Of course, this does not mean that the Bayu culture will disappear immediately in Sichuan. In fact, its social impact on the Bashu area after the Han Dynasty is also far-reaching.
Through the investigation of the development and characteristics of Pakistani culture, we will make the following remarks: In the historical records, from the Xia Shang to the early Western Zhou Dynasty, there have been “Meng Tu Zhi Ba”, “Qi Jun Zhi Ba” and “Zong Ji” in the southwestern region. The Zhiba, the "Jiangzhou Zhiba" and the "枳巴", the historical facts of the above-mentioned Zhuba have not achieved a unified understanding. The author feels that from the archaeological data, the remains of the Ba people in the western Hubei and western Sichuan rivers in the Xia and Shang dynasties are the source of the Ba culture. Other Ba people may have a certain ethnic relationship or connection with the Ba people here, but it is not the direct source of the Ba people. Although the connotations of the Ba culture have similarities and differences in different historical stages, they are based on the geographical environment of the Ba people and the signs of their unearthed artifacts, although they are more or less with the Central Plains, the Shudi, the Chu and the southwestern Yi ethnic minorities. Some cultural factors, and its most prominent and basic characteristics, is a culture of water and fishing. The ancient Ba culture has left a glorious page in history, which is an important part of the excellent ancient culture of the Chinese nation.
(1) See the Ten Years of Cultural Relics and Archaeology (1979-1989), which contains the article "Sichuan Cultural Relics and Archaeology Decade".
(2) (4) See "Relics", No. 10, 1980.
(3) "Exploration of Jinggou Site in Zhongxian County, Sichuan Province", see Archaeology, No. 8 of 1962.
(5) See the "Study on the Bashu Culture" in the "The First National Bashu Culture Academic Symposium".
(6) (11) See “Thesis of the First National Bashu Culture Academic Seminar”.
(7)(9)(10)(14)(16) See "Huayang Guozhi·Ba Zhi".
(8) See "The History of Baiyue Nationality", Guangxi People's Publishing House, 1985, pp. 18-19.
(12) Zhao Dianzeng “Overview of the Bashu Cultural Archaeology in Recent Years”, see the research album of Sanxingdui Site in Sichuan Relics, page 8.
(13) Feng Hanjun, “Southern Ancient Slave, One Country,” in Historical Knowledge, No. 4, 1980.
(15) See "Han Han Shu" Volume 86, "Southern Nanshan Yi Biography".
(17) (18) See "Exploration of the Bashu History".
(The original book "Ba Yu Culture", Southwest Normal University Press, December 1994)