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— Folk Customs —
Changyang Tujia Autonomous County has a long history and a cultural heritage.
Known as the hometown of Chinese folk art.
The eighth day of the twelfth lunar month
On the eighth day of the lunar calendar, the ancient times were called "Lazhe", and the folk custom called Laba, commonly known as "Laba Festival". It was the first festival before the Spring Festival, and since then, the "yearly taste" has become increasingly strong. From the pre-Qin period, Laba was used to sacrifice ancestors and gods, pray for harvest and auspiciousness, and the fixed sacrifice day for the plagues, and later became commonplace. On the eighth day of the twelfth lunar month, the Chinese people have the custom of eating Laba porridge. There are many folk legends about Laba and Laba porridge.
The Laba Festival originated from the end of the Yuan Dynasty and the beginning of the Ming Dynasty. It was said that when Zhu Yuanzhang was suffering in the prison, when it was cold, the cold and hungry Zhu Yuanzhang actually found some red beans, rice, red dates and other seven or eight species from the prison hole. Whole grains. Zhu Yuanzhang turned these things into porridge, because that day is the eighth day of the twelfth lunar month, Zhu Yuanzhang is famous for this pot of porridge is Laba porridge. The United States and the United States enjoyed a meal. Later, Zhu Yuanzhang settled down the world and sat in the north to become the emperor. In order to commemorate the special day in the prison, he set the day as Laba Festival and officially named the granitor that he had eaten that day.
The eighth day of the twelfth lunar month is the day of the enlightenment of the founder of Buddhism, Sakyamuni. It is a Buddhist festival, also known as the "Buddha Festival". It is said that Laba porridge is from India. Sakyamuni, the founder of Buddhism, was the son of the King of the King of Gabriel in the northern part of ancient India (now in Nepal). He saw all the sufferings of the sick and the sick, and was dissatisfied with the theocratic rule of Brahmin at that time, abandoning the throne and exoding monks. There was no harvest at first, and after six years of asceticism, on the eighth day of the twelfth lunar month, under the Bodhi tree, he became a Buddha. In these six years of asceticism, only one hemp and one meter a day. Later generations do not forget the suffering he suffered, and ate porridge in the eighth day of the lunar month to commemorate. "Laba" became the "Traditional Day of the Buddha." "Laba" is a grand festival of Buddhism. Before the liberation of Buddhist temples around the temple, the Buddhist scriptures were held, and the chanting was held, and the legendary story of the shepherd's nipples was presented before the birth of Sakyamuni. The porridge was made with fragrant valleys and fruits, and it was called “Laba porridge”. And the Laba porridge was given to the disciples and the devout men and women, and later became popular among the people. It is said that some monasteries were held by the monks before the eighth day of the twelfth lunar month, and along the street, the collected rice, chestnut, jujube, nuts and other materials were boiled into Laba porridge and distributed to the poor. Legend has it that you can get the blessing of the Buddha after eating, so the poor call it "Buddha." Lu You Shi Yun of the Southern Song Dynasty: "The Buddha porridge is more welcoming now, and the Jiangcun Festival is new." It is said that there is a "stacked rice house" in the Tianning Temple in Hangzhou, which has the leftovers in the house. The rest of the year, to the first eight days of the twelfth lunar month, boiled into a bacon porridge to give a believer, known as "Fushou porridge" "ford porridge" means that after eating, you can increase life and increase life. It can be seen that the temples at that time loved the virtues of food.
In the ancient times, Laba porridge was cooked with red beans and glutinous rice, and the materials gradually increased. The Southern Song Dynasty people carefully read "Wulin Old Things" and said: "Use pecans, pine nuts, milk thistle, persimmon, and persimmon to make porridge, which is called 'Laba porridge'." Up to now, people in the vast areas of Jiangnan, Northeast China and Northwest China still retain the custom of eating Laba porridge, which is rare in Guangdong. The materials used are different, and more glutinous rice, red beans, dates, chestnuts, peanuts, ginkgo, lotus seeds, lily, etc. are cooked into sweet porridge. There are also the addition of longan, longan, and candied. In the winter, you can eat a bowl of steaming Laba porridge, which is both delicious and nutritious.
The Laba Festival comes from the custom of "red beans and ghosts." It is said that one of the five emperors of the ancient times, the three sons became evil spirits after their death, and they came out to scare the children. In ancient times, people generally believed in superstitions and feared ghosts and gods. They believed that adults and children had a stroke and were in poor health because of the epidemic. These evil spirits are not afraid of fear, but they are afraid of red (red) beans, so there is a saying that "red beans fight ghosts." Therefore, on the eighth day of the twelfth lunar month, the red bean and red bean porridge were greeted with plague.
The Laba Festival is out of people's nostalgia for the loyal minister Yue Fei. At that time, Yue Fei led the Ministry of Anti-Gold in Zhuxian Town, which was worth a few nine severe winters. Yue Jiajun was unfit for food and clothing, starved and frozen, and all the people sent porridge one after another. Yue Jiajun ate a meal of “thousand porridge” sent by the people. Win and return. This day is the eighth day of December. After Yue Fei’s death, in order to commemorate him, every time he went to the eighth day of the twelfth lunar month, he cooked porridge with miscellaneous grains and beans, and finally became a vulgar.
Qin Shihuang built the Great Wall, and the world’s migrant workers were ordered to come home. They could not go home for many years. Some migrant workers, separated from each other by thousands of mountains and water, could not deliver food, causing many migrant workers to starve to the Great Wall site. One year in the first day of the twelfth lunar month, the migrant workers who had no food and food had accumulated a few grains of whole grains, put them in a pot and made them into a porridge. Each person drank a bowl and finally starved to death under the Great Wall. In order to mourn the migrant workers who starved to death at the Great Wall site, people eat "La Ba Porridge" every year on the eighth day of the twelfth lunar month to commemorate.
According to legend, the old couple lived, worked hard, and saved a family, saving a family business, but the baby son did not live up to expectations, and a daughter-in-law was not good, and soon lost his family business, to the day of the eighth day of the twelfth lunar month, the couple Frozen and hungry, fortunately, there are villagers, neighbors to help, cook a pot of rice, noodles, beans, vegetables and other mixed "mixed porridge." It means: "Don't eat mixed porridge, learn the lesson." This porridge let the young couple change their bad habits, go to the right path, and rely on diligent labor to keep their homes, and the days are getting better. The custom of eating pop porridge in the folk is that people have to follow this warning to warn future generations.