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— Folk Customs —
Changyang Tujia Autonomous County has a long history and a cultural heritage.
Known as the hometown of Chinese folk art.
Distinctive Tujia diet
"Food is the most important thing for the people." Food is the most basic need for human survival. The traditional "eight major cuisines" in our country, which are systematic, wonderful and elegant, reflect the different customs and eating habits of different places. But Tujia people's diet has always been extensive. Because the land is poor, the grain is not abundant, coupled with more people and less land, single animal husbandry, people here have enough food and clothing since ancient times, not yet luxurious. There is a saying that "straw shoes, machine cloth, noodles and lazy tofu", which shows the poor diet of Tujia people.
However, we can not assert that there is no fine food and dietary culture because of the low dietary requirements of Tujia people. If you carefully study the eating style of Tujia people, you will find the intrinsic strong personality of Tujia people. The Tujia people of Changyang have lived in the mountains for generations, depending on mountains to eat mountains, water to eat water, everything is natural, and everything goes according to circumstances. There is a folk song "Delicious Bag" ("Delicious Bag" or "Gluttonous Man") singing:
Think of cherry yellow, wheat and plum on the tree, melon seeds, honey, ginger, and blood enema.
Second, steamed pork, braised fried tofu, and chickens drink more vinegar, high bamboo shoots fried gourd.
Think about bacon jerky, roasted beef, salted duck eggs with red heart, fried garlic with fat meat.
Four thoughts pond lotus root, bean curd loach. Think of the backyard red pomegranate, fried soybeans in a dry pan.
Five thoughts soup oil tea, tea with sesame. Think of the field chicken fried, but also think of the tender towel gourd.
On the surface of the irony "delicious bags", in fact, from the beginning to the end, this is actually a Tujia folk recipe menu! In the meantime, the food involved is the "green food" that we enjoy talking about today. In Tujia people's daily life, the diet is generally very simple. For example, the omnivorous snacks listed in "Delicious Bag Song" are rare if one or two kinds of snacks are put on the table at ordinary times. Looking at the recipes of large families, they are more skilled in cooking. Another folk song, Ten Pans, clearly lists excellent recipes, which make people salivate:
Steamed fish belly, Braised Tofu with bear paw.
Braised pork with spicy pork and spicy roast pork.
Drunken shrimp with vinegar, steamed chicken without bone.
The baby fish has four feet and five feet, and half a kilogram of meat a year.
Heart oil is used to make steamed buns. Steamed pigeon eggs are naturally cooked inside.
In fact, the real Tujia feast is "ten bowls and eight buckles".
The highest standard of hospitality is often seen when honored guests are entertained on major festivals such as weddings, funerals, weddings, feasts and birthdays. The first bowl is "head bowl". The meat cake is cushioned with noodles and yellow flowers. The last bowl is shrimp and rice shredded broth. Except for the two bowls, the other eight bowls are first covered with bowls (smaller than the big bowl). The bowls are oiled, the food and seasonings are put in, steamed and cooked, then buckled in the big bowl and turned back, and the dishes are removed from the top bowl. The shape of the dishes is the same and the surface is smooth. Serve the dishes in a bowl-by-bowl order. Every time the first bowl was served, the man carrying the large plate shouted "the artillery". The long dragging chamber went up to the front of the table, then the artillery fired, and the artisan blew a happy "tune of dishes", and the host came to toast. The guests served as they ate. Then out of the second bowl, the person carrying the large plate shouted "Shun-", "dish tune" and blew up again... Until the tenth bowl, after the big plate "Qi-", the loudspeaker began to blow the "down key", and later the guests finished their meals. The seats of the guests are divided into different sizes according to the upper and lower seats. Ten bowls of dishes recipes, a more standardized statement is "a bowl of head, two bowls of bamboo shoots, three bowls of chicken, four bowls of fresh fish, five bowls of steamed salad, six bowls of sheep, seven bowls of yuan zi, eight bowls of stomach, nine bowls of meat, ten bowls of soup". Ten bowls of dishes on the table also have rules, or put "four-horned claws" or "three yuan and first". In addition to ten bowls of dishes, there are two pickled dishes on top and bottom, which is the most grand feast in the Tujia area of Changyang.
It is said that the "ten bowls and eight buckles" came from the "Manchu-Han Full Seat" in the late Qing Dynasty, with the highest level being "eight big pieces". According to the "eight big pieces", the contents of the recipe are also strictly stipulated, namely millet meat, salt and pepper crisp meat, fried bergamot, Gastrodia whole chicken, Corn Chicken antler, fried duck, golden and silver egg roll, Buddha crawler. In addition to the "eight pieces", there are also "ten cold dishes" of different colors, namely, one green, two white, three red and four black, six spicy and sour, seven sides and eight sides, and nine rounded. "Eight major items" and "ten cold dishes" are also extremely fastidious about the treatment of guest procedures. Nowadays, it is rare to see such leisure.
... Although the dietary characteristics of some Tujia people can be found from the recipes and ceremonies, they still can not fully reflect the eating preferences of Tujia people. When you have time to go to Tujia Mountain Village and have a look at the local dishes of Tujia people and taste the local flavor of Tujia people, you will have a deep understanding of Tujia people's "taste hot and sour, like drinking":
One is hot and sour. During the Great Revolution, there was a folk song: "To eat pepper is not afraid of spicy, to be the Red Army is not afraid of killing. If you cut your head, you cut it, if you kill it, you kill it. Cut off the big bowl scar. Cantonese pepper is the common name of local peppers. Every spring and summer, urban and rural households began to busy up, making chili sauce, pickled pepper powder, sun-dried pepper pepper peel, ground pepper powder, as well as sparse pepper, oxalic pepper, sour pepper, soaked pepper and so on, once used for years. Ordinary or main dish, or seasoning, fried and fried, cooked brine salad, can be said to be applied freely. As the old Zhi said, "In the valley of the cluster rocks, the cold springs are bright and steaming, and the non-pungent is not enough to warm the stomach and invigorate the spleen".
The second is good drinking. "Villagers are good wine, vulgar but old-fashioned". Historically, Ba people are good wine:
Chuanya is only flat, its crops are more millet; Jiujiujiahe can foster his father.
Fuqiu is the only place in the wild, and there are many other places. Jiahe liquor can be used as a foster mother.
In love songs, alcohol becomes a seductive trigger.
Simmered vodka, my brother took a bite. Brother is reluctant to leave.
Sitting next to my sister, I said to my sister, I want her hair to drink alcohol...
In the traditional brewing industry of Changyang, there are many kinds of wines due to different brewing methods and raw materials. There are barbecue wine and flower-piling wine, sweet wine and vodka wine made mainly of glutinous rice, and water-dissolving wine cooked mainly from mashed grains and dregs. It's hard to tell. In terms of drinking methods, it is worth mentioning that "liquor" is also known as "liquor" and "liquor" and the so-called "banquet for relatives, in honor of eating the liquor", which is the highest standard of etiquette for Tujia people to entertain guests. When drinking, take out the whole jar of the good wine, insert the knotted bamboo tube into the jar, and drink according to the guests'superiority and inferiority. Changyang Zhuzhi Ci once described the scene of drinking:
Savage wine produces a fragrant smell, bamboo pole a suction wins pot cup.
Crossing the bridge pork lotus bowl, the woman opened the altar to advise guests to taste.
The third is to eat wax. Tujia cured meat is the most representative. The Tujia people think that fresh pork smells*fishy and like Smoked bacon. In winter, the pigs were killed and salted for three or five days, then smoked with pine and cypress branches for about one month, until the water was dried and the color was golden. Then they became bacon, which could be made into bacon, such as bacon core rolled noodles, bacon dice steamed vegetables, corn flour fried bacon bamboo, Green Pepper Fried bacon, etc* Similarly, sausage, salted pig head, salted liver, sausage, salted fish, salted sheep and so on. Even vegetarian foods such as tofu and soybean sauce can be fumigated into salted flavor, which is unique and enjoyable.
Fourth, Chongshan cuisine. As the saying goes, "home chicken, pheasant soup, eat in the mouth especially fragrant", Tujia people especially love mountain treasure game. Whether flying in the sky, running in the woods or swimming in the water, they can be seated. In modern people's view, it can be said that the Tujia people are not shallow, but in history, the Tujia people are a good fishing and hunting nation. Birds, animals, insects and fish used to be an important source of food for the Tujia people. Because it is located in the deep mountains, there used to be many kinds of rare birds and animals, such as roe, muntjac, deer, badger, snake, monkey, white badger, fox, rabbit, wild boar, wild sheep and other wildlife. Even South China tiger, leopard, giant panda and other rare animals are not rare. As for the birds in the forest such as pheasants, pheasants, turtledoves, quails, parrots, sparrows, and the fish in the water such as white beetle, green fish, carp, crucian carp, catfish, turtle, baby fish, etc., are all delicious on the table of the Tujia people. Therefore, there are also folk rumors such as "Eating four or two birds rather than one kilogram of animals", "Eating in the river is white eel, eating in the mountains is white owl" and so on. In recent years, however, the Tujia people have gradually realized the importance of harmonious coexistence between human and nature. Their interest in food has begun to turn to various wild plants, such as bamboo shoots, toons, artemisia, buckwheat, wild beans, catfish whiskers, knot roots, leek, Pueraria powder, rice dish, purslane, sour claw tea and so on.