— Folk Customs —
Changyang Tujia Autonomous County has a long history and a cultural heritage.
Known as the hometown of Chinese folk art.
Tujia tea culture
China is the birthplace of tea, tea and tea in the world. Tea culture has a long history and rich and colorful, and all ethnic groups have their own tea drinking methods and customs. About 3,000 years ago, tea began to spread, but the tea at that time may not be just a kind of tea tree today. For example, jujube leaves can be used together. Nowadays, the custom of using jujube leaves as tea leaves is still in the Tujia area, and there is a folk traditional story. : In the past, the date of the jujube tree was not sour, very delicious, just because it grew together with a banyan tree. The fruit of the eucalyptus tree was sour. One day, the emperor of the jade emperor went down and picked a date on the ground and ate it. Delicious, and smelled the buds of the banyan tree is fragrant, he thought that the sweet dates are also eucalyptus knots, and the eucalyptus tree is the king of the tree. The jujube tree is also so delicious. However, its leaves have become larger and have a drug effect. People drink sour jujube leaves, the taste is positive, the color is fresh, especially the long-lasting taste of Chen, so the jujube leaf tea is widely used by people until today. This legend tells the history of tea in China. After thousands of years of history, tea has become a necessity in people's lives. Changyang proverb has a saying: "Ginger tea is cold, sugar tea and taste, morning tea is refreshing, tea is easy to get drunk, tea is good for quenching thirst, late tea is difficult to sleep, strong tea is greasy, and tea is damaged overnight." Wang Anshi of the Song Dynasty said: Tea is used, equal to rice salt, not one day." There are many tea writers in the past, and the poets of Changyang Tujia in the Qing Dynasty also wrote the poem "There is a meal full of food and hunger." The world's tea source is in China, and the Chinese tea source is in Wuyishan. This is undoubted. From the Changyi Lushan Mountain, the Taoist priests sang in the tribute to the "Wang Tianzi, Mingchuan Emperor": "Fa tea, natural sage, germination, Wuyi immortal planted, Zhao The state monk nodded. The silver eye of the crab eye soup, the snow flies inside the grape vine." The road of tea in Tujia area also found the basis. Zhaozhou monk, although his name is unknown, he made a dedication to the spread and development of tea in the Tujia area. To Wang Tianzi is the ancient prince. The ancestors of Tujia, Changyang Tujia people used tea.
Changyang has set up a county in Yushan Mountain since the Han Dynasty. Laoshan tea is a well-known tribute tea in history. Taoism has a tribute to the tribute: "Mengding spring back, creation of the latent shade in the tongue, Jianxi thunder, earthworks first tribute to the dragon group." This is said Sichuan Mengding tea, but the history of the mountain tea is also tribute to the emperor, so it is very clear that the new variety of Laoshan tea is called "Lushan Gongzhen". There is a mountain in the southeast of Lushan Mountain. Since ancient times, it was called "Long San Wo", and the terrain is twice as high as Lushan. The range is larger than that of Lushan. It is said that there are three nests of tea trees in the past. It is a crow of tea in the spring. It is made of tender oil and oil. The tea made is not only delicious, but also rooted in the cup. The author was prosperous. In the early 1960s, he went up the mountain to investigate. At the same time, he investigated whether there are ancient vertebrate fossils (commonly known as keels) in Longsanwo. On the top of the mountain, there is a flat land of about two acres, sand, and the middle is concave. There is also a small "Tiankeng". There is often a mist in the pit. An old man told me that the former Sanwo tea grew in this nest. Because the seasons are evergreen, some people call it "Green Mountain Nest". This is a great place to grow tea. The day when I went up the mountain was the first eye after the rain. The clouds around the mountain rolled over. The three nests of old tea had already disappeared, and a nest of new tea was full of hills. Thousands of "Chouque Tsui" thrive in pure soil and fresh air. At this moment, Yulu is green grass, mountain flowers are called mountain birds, and a beautiful tea garden scenery is really intoxicating. The legendary three nests can be seen. The reason why tea is so amazing, its survival has a close relationship with the natural environment here. I believe that the characteristics of the tea in the cup of the former Long Sanwo are true in the cup. It is not a fabrication, but it is not just the three nests of tea. Now, the tea expert Zhao Yirang who works in Changyang has been in the mountains for many years. Research, elaborate tea, is also upright in the cup, the magical legend has become a reality in her hands.
Tujia people are very hospitable, no matter who they are acquainted with, no matter who they are, they always treat each other with tea. As the saying goes, "The visitor does not screen tea, and there is no 'Dasha' at home (ie, no courtesy)" Changyang Tujia people regard tea as a spiritual thing, and think that tea has a tea god, and it is forbidden to pour tea on the ground, otherwise it will taint the tea god. To catch tea, you must wash your hands first, called "net hand". This is still a move to the gods, and there is a custom to prevent pollution of tea. Tea is not only used to entertain guests, but also to serve the gods. The tea that worships the gods should be brewed in an artisanal small earthen jar. This small jar is called “King Tea Pot”, and you can use this small jar to make tea treats when you come home. I don’t think this can is small. I can treat ten people at a time. This is the famous Tujia “roasted tea”. When the guests enter the door, the owner puts a special small earthen jar (also known as a tea pot) on the stove. Then put in the tea and ten rice, keep swaying on the fire, after scorching, the water will be flushed in, the gas cannon will rise, and after the bubbles are lost, then rush into a little boiling water until it is full, then there are a few The guest puts a few teacups, pours the tea into the cup on average, then rinses the water, and then pours it into the cup on average, repeatedly, until the cups of tea are full, and the guests are served. This kind of tea is very delicious. After drinking, the mouth will let the wind sweep away, and the sweet feeling will appear in the throat. If you want to drink another cup, people who are not used to drinking tea will drink like a drunk, which will make you uncomfortable. The Turkish people are kind and have the custom of using tea as a good, called "Shi Tea." Some people put a tank of tea on the road in front of the door to let the passers-by freely access it. This is a good thing, but there is a saying: "Give three years of tea, but not a baby." There are a few households. It is dominated by karma thoughts, but this has nothing to do with the overall situation. Leadership is also a virtue, and people are good. Tujia people have always had this traditional virtue. Although the Tujia area is a steep slope of the hillside, it is a concentrated production area of tea, and the tea culture is particularly rich. These fine customs have strong appeal and are favorable conditions for the development of the Tujia economy. In the thirteenth year of Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty, Li Ba, a magistrate of Changyang, followed the ancient teachings: "The celestial patrol of the emperor... the customs of the people". When he took office, he was in the east slope of the county, the Sanjianpo in the north of the county, the point of the military slope, and the southern slope of the county. Repair the four-way tea kiosk, point the tea pavilion on the slope, stone pier stone pillar railing, two floors above and below, in front of the main entrance, a stone carved white tiger, standing on the top of an independent stone pillar about 4 meters high, can be described as spectacular. It is dominated by tea, and it is also a snack. It has become a habitat for pedestrians and a place for local people to relax and enjoy. This tea kiosk has been preserved until the early 1950s. Li Baoxing repaired the four-way tea pavilion, which won the hearts of the people and was a good story in Changyang.
In the past, the tea of the parents of Yang was divided into fine and fine. The tea was made of fine tea. The rich used fine tea. The sentiment and worship are also fine tea. There is also a kind of coarse tea, which is used by civilians. The so-called "rough tea and light rice", this kind of coarse tea is really thick to the extreme. After the autumn tea, the leaves become hard and the pieces are big, the color becomes black and oil, then the Tujia people will use the knife to be old. The tea leaves are cut, and there are also two-inch long tea branches. They are steamed and dried in large pots. The leaves are yellow and can be consumed or sold. Put the rough tea into the white cloth pocket beforehand, press it tightly with your feet, and make a big tea bag, waiting for sale. Each household has a "tea scorpion" (common name monkey) in which it is packed into coarse tea. When it is used, it takes a large amount and puts it into a can. It is commonly known as this "three cans", which is coarse tea. Although this kind of tea is thick, it still has the effect of quenching thirst.
Tujia people used tea as a gift to expand the scope of tea, including tea and tea, to give people a joy, called "eat tea", gifts for people called "tea ceremony", snacks before meals called "Eat tea." “High-altitude fine tea, cotton under the river, large bowl in the kiln, lotus flower on the bowl” There are many types of tea food, all served in lotus bowls, including egg tea, arrowroot tea, pasta tea, rice tea, and mung bean skin. Tea, claw seed, fruit dish, tea, etc. The next day, the new wife will give her in-laws a cup of tea, and the tea-in-law will give tea. Some father-in-laws were unable to get out of bed the next morning. They wanted the new wife to send the tea to the bed, called "drinking old tea." The price of this tea is doubled, and the father does not care. This is also a "tea ceremony"!
The Tujia people have a lot of tea customs, and their tea songs are more abundant. Just as Changyang’s Qing Dynasty folk songs sang: “There are three or five lights in the Yuan Dynasty, and the village’s Yabu is noisy. His family has tea blossoms, which is less than the farmer’s singing tea.” Tea picking is a kind of Tiange, which plays an important role in Changyang folk songs. One page:
Tea is brewed in February,
Sisters go to pick tea,
Big sister picks up more girls,
No matter how early you go home.
Tea picking in March is Qingming.
The slave embroidered the towel in the room.
Embroidered tea flowers,
The tea-picker who is embroidered in the middle.
I played tea mountain,
There are many sisters in Chashan.
I want to ask one,
I am afraid not to follow me.
a cup of tea at the door,
Knowing to climb up,
Shouting to drink tea.
Tujia tea songs are witty and humorous, with "December tea picking", "Four season tea picking", "early tea picking", "noon picking tea", as well as "Tanggong tea picking" and "Taoist tea picking" ", "pour tea", "tea white", etc., into the tea mountain into the ocean of tea songs. Spring tea opening is a season of recovery of all things, the mountain tea garden, singing. People use tea songs to express all kinds of feelings, so the content of tea songs is all-encompassing. Love is the theme of tea songs. In tea mountain, there are many people who use tea songs as a medium to become partners.
The main economic source of the tea area is tea. After the tea is ready, I hope that the foreign tea merchants will buy it. There is a song in Lushan: "March is Qingming, the tea drinker enters the sister's door, the tea is white, and the sister owes the guests a pain." "It sang the hardships of the goods in the Tujia area. "A tree of tea on the high mountain ridge, picked up every year, every year, the first road picks up the catty four or two, the second picks the eight eight eight, buy the comb to send the girl to the husband's family." Visible tea in the economic life of the Tujia people important position. "The new boat is tall and tall. It is filled with tea bags, coarse tea bags, fine tea bags, and should not be hit by Dingzi. The boat broke, the tea is full of rivers, fine tea, and the flowers are fragrant. "Ding Zikai" is a small place name on the edge of the Qingjiang River at the foot of Mount Lushan. It is easy to break the wooden boat. This authentic Lushan tea song shows the scene of breaking the tea boat. In the tea songs of Tujia, there are also narrative tea songs that reflect the sale of tea:
I am eating too much at home.
Think of it,
Dedicated to takeaway tea.
There is no burning in the house.
Think of good heart,
I slowed down the tea drinker.
Under the grain in February,
Planting in March,
I am busy when you go out.
Under the grain in March,
April is being inserted,
I am coming back to catch up.
Advise you not to pick tea,
Planting crops in the house,
The wind does not blow the tail of the plow.
Shoulder to shoulder a big load,
Sweat on sweat,
Pick up the money and make no profit.
a bowl on the stove,
Pick up a board,
Men do not accept women.
You are going to sell tea,
I will go back to my family.
Fight and make a broken boat.
On the stove,
Lift it up,
Do not sell tea who feeds.
Going to go,
I will not leave you,
It’s a bad word.
Wang Lao Ba, next door,
Going to sell tea every year,
Did not see him to send money.
Don't want to sell tea,
The buddy is about to be wrecked.
If you can’t make money, you won’t mess up again.
You go to the companion,
I am going to get tea,
Fried chopped eggs with chopped green onion.
I got ten bowls of vegetables,
The guys are coming,
The rough tea is finely confessed.
Have a cup of tea to discretion,
I’m listening to me,
Hurry and sell it back to the fire.
Two cups of tea to worship,
Everyone listens clearly,
Be careful when going out of the store.
Three cups of tea to sieve,
Take out your luggage,
There are new shoes in the bag.
The pole is soft,
Put your hands on both ends,
Consumption of the second sister to go outside.
The content of tea songs is all-encompassing. Some tea songs have nothing to do with tea. For example, “Tuan Gong Cai Tea” and “Ancient Tea Picking”, what is called what to sing tea, sings and sings ". The tea-picking songs are the same as the sing-along songs. They usually sing the ancients in the morning, sing the name of the flowers at noon, and sing love in the afternoon. This is the law formed by the workers from morning to night. The energy of the people in the morning is full of energy. Singing historical figures and showing the singer's ability. At noon, the sun is big and the head is stuffy. At the same time, the mountain flowers are red, and the name of the scene is sung. In the afternoon, people feel tired and sing love and mention the spirit. Regardless of what the singer chooses, it is always associated with tea, thus creating names such as “anti-collecting tea”, “Taoist tea picking”, “December picking tea”, etc., some and actual content. It has nothing to do with tea picking, but it is still called tea songs. The tea culture in the Tujia area of Changyang has rich cultural content from tea, tea, tea, tea and tea. Especially the tea songs run through it. It is really sweet and sweet, which is what the tea farmers have left for generations. Spiritual wealth is an important material for studying the economic and cultural history of Tujia regions.