— Folk Customs —
Changyang Tujia Autonomous County has a long history and a cultural heritage.
Known as the hometown of Chinese folk art.
Demystifying the birthplace of the Ba people and Develop Qingjiang Tourism
Hubei Changyang Tujia Autonomous County is located in the south bank of the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River, in the middle and lower reaches of the Qingjiang River in southwestern Hubei, and 50 kilometers north of Yichang City. Qingjiang is the mother river of the Tujia people. Like the Yellow River Basin, it is the cradle of ancient Chinese civilization. It is not only the birthplace of the early wise man "Changyang people" 200,000 years ago, but also the hometown of the ancient Ba people of 4,000 years ago. In the development and construction of the Yangtze River water system in the Qingjiang River Basin, there are more than ten ancient cultural sites discovered through scientific archaeological excavations, including four Paleolithic sites; four Daxi cultural sites in the Neolithic period; and four early cultural sites in the early Ba Dynasty; Three places in the Ba people's cemetery. A total of more than 30,000 pieces of cultural relics were obtained. Its time span spans more than 100,000 years, including the cultural characteristics of the important era of the Middle Ages and Late Paleolithic Ages, the Daxi Culture before the Neolithic Age, the Daxi Culture, the Early Ba Culture, and the Chu Culture. Recently, the three documents of Qingjiang Archaeology, Qingjiang River Basin Ancient Animal Relics, Qingjiang Archaeological Gap and Unearthed Cultural Relics, edited by Professor Wang Shancai of Hubei Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, complete and systematically The history and culture of Qingjiang clearly appeared in front of us and became a comprehensive and scientific picture of the "Ancient Changyang History". "Changjiang Changyang, the hometown of the Cubans in western Hubei" is in line with historical facts. Below, I will talk about the origins of the Ba people’s birthplace, the Wuluzhong Mountain, the Ba nationality’s move to Yanyang, the Bacheng’s old city, the Yicheng incense stone, and the Bawang’s tomb, Baihulong.
First, the birthplace of the Ba people - Wuluo Zhonglishan
"Han Han Shu Nan Nan Xi Yi Biography" records: "Ba County South County is quite a man, there are five surnames; Pap, Fan, Yu, Ai, Zheng, all from the Wuluozhong to the mountains. Its mountains are red , the black two points, the son of Pap is born in the red hole, the sons of the four surnames are all black holes. There is no king, all things are ghosts and gods. It is throwing swords in the stone cave, about the middle, and the lord. They are all sighed by each other. They also make it possible to take the earthen crafts, and to be able to float, and to think that they are kings, and that the surnames of the surnames are sinking, and that they are only floating. Because they are co-founded, they are for the monarch. To Yanyang. There is a goddess in the salt water, that is, Junjun: "The vast area, the fish salt is out, willing to stay together." Jun Jun does not allow, salt gods come to stay, then become a worm, fly with insects Covering the sun, the heavens and the earth are stunned, and for more than ten days, the princes are waiting for them. Because of the shooting, the heavens are enlightened. The princes are the kings of Yicheng." This record reflects the origins of the five surnames of the county of Ba County. The place of birth, the geographical environment, the original beliefs, the process of obtaining the title of the prince of the Pakistani government, and the process of defeating the salt water goddess Jun Yicheng.
Wuluozhong is also known as “Difficult to stay in the mountains”. "Tai Ping Yu Yu Ji" Volume 147 "Changyang" article: "Wu Luozhong is away from the mountain, a "difficult to stay in the mountains", seventy-eight miles from the northwest of the county, Ben Yijun is also out." "Jin Shu·Li "Special" contains: "The martial arts fell from the landslide, there are two stone caves, one of which is red as a Dan, a black as lacquer." "Shui Jing Zhu" volume three seven: "(Yi Shui) East Road is difficult to stay in the south of the city. The city is also the mountain. The independence is absolutely strong. On the west side, there is a stone hole, and it is a singularity. The common name is “Yin and Yang Stone”, the yin stone is often wet, the sun stone is often dry... The Saba has five surnames, and there is no monarch. Long, is a total of throwing swords in the stone cave, can be regarded as the king." The Qing Dynasty Changyang has a famous cultural person named Peng Qiutaan, and his "Zhuzhi Ci" also has "Yushan own yin and yang stone, ignore The words of the yin and yang are not whip. Lushan is said to be difficult to stay in the city, the city is also the mountain, and the mountain is difficult to stay in the river, also known as Changxi, Xiaoxi, which originated from the Longtan Ping difficult to stay in the cave. All of the above-mentioned features, orientations, distances, and even the listed features of the Wuluozhong Mountain are consistent with the order of the mountains in Jindu Bay.
According to the texts contained in "Han Han Shu" and "Jin Shu", Wuluozhong is a combination of Wuluoshan and Zhonglishan. Its topography is the same as that of Changyang Mountain. The newly edited "Changyang County" records: "Yushan County, Hanji, Zhizhou, Pingping. And the Northern and Southern Dynasties, Liangfen Mountain, Yichang County, Kaikai Huangchu Renamed Qingjiang County, Daye was changed to Bashan County, and Tang Wude eight years (625), all of which were located in Yuping, Yuzhou." The county seat of the county is located in the north of Lushan Mountain, opposite to Lushan Mountain. Therefore, Daishan County was named after Mount Lu. Wuluozhong is off the mountain in Yishui, and the "Shui Jing Zhu" contains: "Yu Jun floating earth boat in Yishui, that is, the Qingshan River in Lushan." It can be seen that the name of Lushan was formed in the Han Dynasty. So, how do you know that Lushan is the place where Wuluozhong is away from the mountains? The reason is that Wuluozhong is away from the red and black caves in the mountains and the yin and yang stones in the caves. The black and black caves could have accommodated hundreds of people. However, in history, there has been a thing of "the past, the Wuluozhong landslide", since it collapsed. It is impossible to preserve the whole red hole. However, the evidence of the landslide is conclusive. After field investigation, the traces of the collapse are obvious. That is to say, there are many mountain peaks in the mountain, just like a knife and axe; in several hills, the boulders are stacked together; there is a place on the mountainside. “Dingshipping”, there is a large stone near ten meters square and a stalagmite formed in the cave. It is evidence that the mountain rock collapses. Similarly, at the foot of the northern foot of the original mountain, it is also a boulder accumulation. It can be seen that the area of the mountain collapse should be quite large. It should also be pointed out that although the huge red and black caves collapsed, the remains of its existence can still be found. So far, there is a pile of red rocks like Chi Rudan. So this is the reason that later set this place as a red hole. Such caves and "rock houses" are connected for 10 kilometers. For example, Lushan and Wuluozhong are more than 20 kilometers southeast of the mountain. There are nearly 200,000 years of "Changyang people" fossils in Dajiazhongjiawan; 12 kilometers in the west. The squid mountain ruins of 90,000 years, as well as the caves of Gaoqiao and Xiongdong rock, have traces of ancient people living. At the foot of Mount Lushan, stone axe, sand pottery pieces, etc. were unearthed, and a tiger button was unearthed at Qianyuping, 2.5 km away. These discoveries are the ancestors of the Tujia people, the birthplace of the Ba people, the Wuluozhong Mountain (also known as Lushan Mountain), which provides scientific evidence that human beings have proliferated before the Ba people. Judging from the names of local remains, ancient customs, and ancient sayings, there are a large number of traces of the activities of the monarchs in the west of Lushan. Jun Jun, revered as "to the king", "to Wang Tianzi", just as the Qing Dynasty Peng Qiutao wrote "Zhuzhi Ci" cloud "Turkish boat Yishui shot Yanyang, the Pakistani surname king has old news. To the king He Xu said the emperor, for quite a year廪君". According to the investigation, there are more than 40 "Xiangwang Temple" on both sides of the Qingjiang River in Changyang, and there are many "to Wangqiao". It is worth noting that in places where there are more temples, there are many places with "Ba" and "Tiger", such as Bashan, Bawangyu, Bashanxia, Bawangdong, etc., with more than 20 places. There are more than 50 place names in the word, such as Baihu Mountain and Baihu Ridge. In addition, Changyang folk songs have also been passed down from generation to generation with the saying that "a corner of Wang Tianzi is blown out, and a Qingjiang River is blown out". When the boatmen of the past generations went to the Wang Temple and to the Wangtan, they would burn incense and worship, in order to "protect the peace" to the king. Wuluozhongli Mountain has aroused people's attention in history, but all of them are inconsistent with the historical materials. After years of research, we have denied the "Liushan said", "squeeze hole", "Longjiaoba said", etc. . In summary, it is in line with historical facts to recognize that Wuluozhong is away from the mountain, that is, Lushan.
Second, the Ba people moved westward - Yanyang swayed marriage
The location of Yanyang is the key to verifying the migration route of Junjun. "Jin Shu" about the death of the goddess of saltwater after the death of the goddess, the return of the earthen boat, and the record of Yicheng, indicating that Yanyang is located above Yicheng. Since the name is "Salt Yang", it must be related to salt. According to the literature records and archaeological data, the Ba people are a salt-stricken nation, and the Qingjiang River Basin has a long history of salt production. Up to now, in the area of more than two hundred miles in the west of Changyang, there is also a salt pond hot spring. In ancient times, it was also called salt water. The daily flow of hot springs reached 600 cubic meters, and the water temperature was 42.5 ° C. It was sodium fluorochloride, and the sodium chloride content was about 1,000. Third. In the vicinity of the hot springs, there are place names such as “Yanchi”, “Yanchi River”, “Yanjing Temple” and “Salt”. Qing Tongzhi "Changyang County" contains: "Saline water is also Yishui." "Sui Shu Geography" contains: "Qingjiang County, Tongwu County. Salt water, after the county, and set up Zitian County." "Old Tang Book Geography contains: "Bashan, divided into Lushan County, set Bashan County. Wude two years, set Jiangzhou Lingba Mountain, salt water two counties." Qing Daoguang "Changyang County Records · Ancient Monuments" contains: "Saline Waste County, In the west of the county, two hundred miles, Tang Wudechu with Bashan, or cloud salt water." Northern Wei Road, in the "Water Sutra, Yishui" said: "Yi Shui and East and the hot springs Sanxihe Daxi, north and south There are hot springs on the note. Summer is warm and hot in winter, there are often foggy, ulcers and diseases, and the bathers are more and more. The father and the old pass, this spring first comes out of salt. There is salt in the water today. Yishui has the name of salt water. One of them." The new edition of "Changyang County" contains: "Changyang Buddhism... The main temple is the first to spread the Qingqing Temple. The Chuanqing Temple is also called Yanjing Temple, Tang Jian, Song Zhezong is expanded for four years, and the scale is grand. The Great Zen Forest. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the gangsters still reached more than a hundred people. There are still Tallinn and the ancestral temples. The south bank of the Qingjiang River, which is opposite to the hot spring, is the mast, and the terrain is flat. Here the river is wide and famous for producing fish. A large number of fish bones were unearthed from the Xianglu Stone Cultural Site and the Yulingping Cultural Site. This is consistent with the fish salt contained in the ancient books. It is also worth mentioning that in recent years, near the hot springs, the site of the Xiaoxia Cave, which was around 130,000 years ago, the site of the cavern of more than 27,000 years and the mast of 10,000-4,000 years ago. Ruins. These findings are enough to show that there have been human activities in the area around Yanchi Hot Spring. In addition, the local people have spread the folktales of the saltwater goddess Deji and the old ancestors to Wang Tianzi. Many of the temples in the Wang Temple have a statue of Wang Tianzi and Deji Niangniang. In the Baitang of the Yuxiakou, there are two stone statues of Wang Tianzi and Deji Niangniang. According to historical records and field surveys of landforms and folklore, Yanchi Hot Springs should be the place where Yan Jun was on the way to the west.
Ancient myths and legends often reflect the shadow of certain history, and the development of history is accompanied by the creation of certain mythological stories. "From Yishui to Yanyang, there is a goddess in the salt water, saying that you are arrogant: "The vast area, the fish and salt are out, willing to stay together", not only the topography is consistent, but also has a history. In the middle reaches of the Qingjiang River, there are the companion gorge and the Zhaoyu River, while the east of the 17th has the incense burner stone ruins, and the west is the Yanjing Temple ruins (provincial cultural relics protection unit) and the rafting site. The tribute to the gorge of the gorge should be the place where the legendary 廪君 led the Palestinians to march westward with the salted women and establish alliances. The remaining place names, ancient languages and ancient customs in the west of Lushan Mountain are also strong evidence. More than ten ancient cultural sites have been discovered from Wuxizhong to the west of the mountain to the hot springs. There are three early Bajia cultural sites. Therefore, when the monarch migration was to open up the Qingjiang River along the west bank of the Qingjiang River, "it has its merits in Yishui."
Third, the ancient capital of Pakistan - Yicheng incense burner stone
"Jin Shu·Li Te Chuan" contains: "Yicheng Shianqu, the spring is also a song. The monarch looks like a cave, sighs: 'I am new from the cave, and now into this, what?" The shore is collapsed, Guang Sanzhang Yu, and the order of the multiplication. Qi Jun Dengzhi, there is Pingshi on the shore, Fang Yizhang, five feet long. Jun Jun rests on it, the calculation is calculated, all are Shijie. Because the city is next to it. After that, there are many kinds of things.” According to the records of the literature, after the Jun Jun to Yanyang, there is a migration process under the earth-moving ship and Yicheng, which shows that “Yicheng” is in Wuluozhong and Yanyang. between. Through the on-the-spot investigation of the mountains and rivers along the Qingjiang River, the geomorphological characteristics of the incense burner stone on the north bank of the Qingjiang River 17 kilometers downstream of the Yanchi Hot Spring and the "Yicheng" contained in the ancient literature have "stone shore song" and "the water is also curved". Such as the "point", "the shore is collapse", "the order of the multiplication", "there is a flat stone on the shore" and other geomorphological features are basically consistent, and other places, nowhere to find a place that is so consistent. At the same time, the Changyang Yuxiakou, the monument that commemorates the death of the monarchy, Baihulong, also proves that the location of Yicheng is the place where we prove the history of folklore. More important is the discovery of the incense burner stone ruins. The site is a typical early Pakistani cultural site. It is located 0.5 km southeast of Yuxiakou Town, Changyang Tujia Autonomous County, Hubei Province, and 97 km east of Changyang County. It belongs to the middle reaches of the Qingjiang River. The relics unearthed at the site are extremely rich, and the accumulation of strata is very clear. A total of more than 10,000 pieces of cultural relics such as pottery, stoneware, bronzes and bones were unearthed, and a large number of merchants, the skeletal bones of the Zhou Dynasty and two pottery seals of the Shang and Zhou Dynasties were also unearthed. The number of oracle bones unearthed is large, the age is early, and the materials are novel. Not only the large bones made of the shoulder bones of the cows, but also the bones made from the larger fish stalks that have never been unearthed in the Central Plains are not the past. The common bones made from the shoulder blades of cattle, sheep and pigs are unique in the vast areas south of the Yangtze River. Two pottery seals were unearthed in the Western Zhou Formation of the site. Its discovery unveiled the mystery of the origins of ancient seals. Judging from the unearthed relics, from the summer, the merchants, the thoughtful Spring and Autumn and the Warring States period, from morning to night, they were continuously passed down without interruption. In addition to the coexistence of Ba and Chu cultures during the Warring States period, the Pakistani culture before the Spring and Autumn Period was relatively simple and had no influence from foreign cultures. This shows the continuity of the remains of the early Ba people in the incense stone cultural relics. He is not a foreign culture, but a local indigenous cultural relic. According to the cultural characteristics of the incense burner stone ruins, archaeologists named it "the incense burner stone culture", that is, the early Pakistani culture. The scientific excavation of the incense burner stone cultural relics and the discovery of its rich cultural relics are of vital importance for the study of the early Pakistani culture. Therefore, it has been regarded by the academic circles as a major discovery in the field of archaeology in recent years. It not only solves the ethnic origin problem of Tujia people in China, but also solves the historical mystery of the ancient Chinese people in ancient times. It not only has important academic value for the study of China's early Pakistani culture, but also has important significance for studying the ancient history of the Chinese nation.
Fourth, the tomb of King Bawangjun - Baihu Ridge
Jun Jun is the first king of Pakistan. He was born in Changyang, struggled in Changyang for the rest of his life, and finally slept in Changyang. Baihulong is the cemetery of Junjun. Baihu Ridge is located in the northwest of the incense burner stone ruins, 1 km apart. There is a legend in the local Bailu Ridge. In ancient times, a white-haired, white-bearded old man came to Wicking Ridge and died after a long time. After the death, when the partners buried him, the old man became a white tiger and rose to heaven. From then on, this place is called Baihulong, where the white tiger rises to heaven. Daoguang's "Changyang County Records" records: "White Tiger Ridge, in the west of the county, two hundred and thirty miles. The old dying dying, the soul is turned into a white tiger, so the Pakistani people drink blood from the tiger, smashing people." Also, out of the red hole. Its death is also turned into a white tiger, there is a ridge is also suitable. Born to the people of the Palestinians, the death of the people of the Pakistani." Also contains: "Ba people 廪 廪 为 白 白 白 白 白 白 白 : : : 白 白 白 白 白 白 白 白 白 白 白 白The old ambition is that the sinister white tiger refers to this."
All in all, the records of historical documents, the legends of generations of folks and the rich unearthed cultural relics prove each other, which is enough to show that the birthplace of the Ba people is in the Wuluzhong Mountain (Lushan Mountain) in Changyang, Qingyang. The Changyang incense burner stone ruins are the ancient capitals of the ancient Pakistan. .
The Bashanba Shuiba culture has a long history.
The mysterious Changyang, the beautiful Qingjiang, the singing and dancing mountain towns are more pilgrimage in the reform and opening up today. The county party committee and county people's government led the people of Changyang to create the Qingjiang tourism brand, and created the Qingjiang landscape ecological tour with the theme of Qingjiang Gallery; the folk customs and leisure tour with the theme of unveiling the birthplace of the Ba people; the theme of visiting the old revolutionary ruins The red tour will welcome tourists from all over the world and reproduce the brilliance of Ba Tu culture.
Biography of Linjun